VASILEOS OF MAKEDONIA, LEADER OF THE CORINTHIAN LEAGUE,
OUR BRIGHTEST OF EGYPT, LORD OF THE LORDS OF PERSIA,
VASILEON OF VASILEONDON MAKEDONIA, BY THE MERCY OF GOD, LORD OF THE ANCIENT WORLD, THE MOST DIVINE,
''ALWAYS BE THE BEST AND TO STAY THE HIGHEST ABOVE ALL''
Be proud Philippoy, the glorious Vasileos Makedon,
Rejoice, Makedonia, our dearest land,
Why you are the father of Alexandoy,
And you are called his homeland.
ΑΛΕΑΝΔΡY - Г - TPETI
MAKEΔNΩN - Ancient Makedonian (Koinon Makedonon) alphabet - the letter '' Г - G '' was number 3, the number '' 3 '' is Arabic, meaning later
MAKEΔNΩN - it is the official name and is unique, there is no need for "numbers"
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy
Philipoy and Alexandroy Makedonon
Be proud Philippoy, the glorious Vasileos Makedon,
Rejoice, Makedonia, our dearest land,
Why you are the father of Alexandoy,
And you are called his homeland.
Оy, оy, оy, we are few in number,
Оy, оy, оy, in battle we are stronger.
Alexandroy Makedonon, leads us,
Оy, оy, оy, Vasileon Маkedon, ON, ON - (he is).
By the Mercy of God,
until to India, all trampled, eternity gave us.
Alexandroy, Alexandroy Makedonon, from God for us the holy gift,
Alexandroy, Alexandroy Makedonon, our glory Vasileon Маkedon.
Damn it,.. damn it,.. Damn it! Who poisoned Alexandroy Makedonon, our glory Vasileon Маkedon.
Еy, Makedonians,.. ey, Makedonians, miserable you are,... miserable you are ,... nobody you are, nobody we are and nothing we have without Alexandroy Makedonon, our glory Vasileon Маkedon.
Blood nourishes the earth, in blood all people die and are born. Blood is the food of the gods. Down there for centuries we offended,...
Еy, we Makedonians give the holy word:
From Makedonia and Alexandroy Makedonon, our glory Vasileon Маkedon, we will never give up.
Glory Makedonian We will bring back,
Alexandroy Makedonon, our glory Vasileon Маkedon we adore, Makedonia, our dearest land we respect.
Where is the flowing water,... it will still flow,
Alexandroy Makedonon, our glory Vasileon Маkedon, he said so.
Alexandroy Makedonon, it's Маkedon,
Маkedon it's Alexandroy Makedonon, ON, ON - (he is).
Еy, to know, Alexandroy Makedonon, our glory Vasileon Маkedon, is Makedon,
Makedon is Alexandroy Makedonon.
Hei to know: Alexandroy Makedonon glory Vasileon (king of kings) Makedon, we Makedonians don't give.
oy, oy, oy, we don't care for your number,
oy, oy, oy, in the battle we are stronger.
EI, Alexandroy, OY, OY!
EI, Makedonon, ON, ON!
Alexandroy Makedonon glory Vasileon Makedon, us lead. ''
- A LE XAN DR OY - , here "XAN-KSAN", is interpreted as "holy".
А - for
LЕ - medicine
XAN-KSAN - holy
D'R - gift
ОЈ - оy
For cure holy gift
oy - Аlexandroy.
AS THERE IS ONE SUN IN HEAVEN, THERE WILL ONLY BE ONE LORD ON EARTH, AS IN HEAVEN, ALSO ON EARTH
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy - Copies Medusa and Nicaea - Archaeological Museum of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
VASILEOS MAKEDONON ALEXANDROY
The world belongs to the brave
Fame is not achieved by other's hands
'' TO THE ILYRIANS, THE THRACES AND THE OTHER SOLDIERS I GIVE THEM GOLD LIKE THEY HAVE NEVER HAD, ... TO THE MAKEDONIANS I GIVE ETERNITY ''
THERE IS NOTHING IMPOSSIBLE FOR THE ONE WHO WILL TRY
'' I CONQUER THE WORLD FOR THE MAKEDONIANS ''
VASILEOS MAKEDONON ALEXANDROY
Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy
VASILEON MAKEDONON ALEXANDROY
I WILL NOT STOLE THE VICTORY
VASILEON MAKEDONON ALEXANDROY in Battle - Taranto, National Archaeological Museum, Italy - 3rd century BC
This is a fake medallion by Tasso.Greeks caught forging.
Vasileos (king - you're light in Makedonian) after Vasileon (king of the kings), ''Makedonon'' is the title inheritedfrom his father Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy, so this is not a surname but the title, and after his son there are others are not ''MAKEDONON - HE is Makedon'', it can be said that all others afterwards are usurpers of the Makedonian throne. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was born in BELLAS - illuminated, BELLASTI - the illuminated, Makedonia on July 20, 356 BC, (month said ''LOY'' in Makedonian) and died in Babylon on June 10, 323 BC.was the Vasileos - ruler of Makedonia from the Argeadian dynasty and ruled from 336 BC.to 323 BC. He was one of the most successful military leaders in the history of humanity.
The name of Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy - Aleksandar Makedonski is unique and there is no need for names like "Alexander the Third of Macedonia" or negatorian political names: "veliki", "the great", "magno", "magnus" etc.
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was born from the marriage of Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy and the Makedonian Vasilissas Olympia, otherwise a princess of Molossia, in three hundred and fifty-six years BC at the beginning of the month of ''Loy'', on the sixth day.
On that day the temple of Artemis in Ephesus was burned. From this Hagest of Magnesia uttered the saying which with its cold could extinguish the fire in the temple:
“Of course, that temple must have burned down when Artemis became a grandmother at the birth of Vasileon Alexandoy”.
His coming into the world was a sign of victory.
Plutarch say that his birth was foretold to Vasileos Philippoy and Vasilissas Olympia.
Namely, Vasilissas Olympia dreamed that a thunderbolt hit her body and set it all on fire.
Vasilissas Olympia. Unfortunately this is a fake medallion by island of Tasso.
Understandably, her mystical mind immediately associated thunder with DZE - the God of light, the ILE god of the Sun, and regarded it as an expression of the personal interest of this god - protector of her family and her future fertility.
Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy, dreamed a dream in which he sealed the womb of Vasilissas Olympia with a seal bearing the imprint of a lion.
When the dreams of the court prophet Aristander of Telmes were told, he immediately concluded that Vasilisis Olympia was pregnant and carrying a child who would have a lion character .
On the same day that his son Alexandroy was born, messengers arrived to Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy informing him of the victory over the Illyrians and the victory of his horse at the Olympic Games. The special qualities that Alexandroy possessed and showed from a young age justified Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy hope that his son had the desired heir.
Alexandroy in it he merged the many character traits of both his parents.
From his mother, a temperamental woman subject to the faith in magic inherited a passionate and less stubborn person, an irrational longing to meet the unknown and a belief in a special heroic glory, which decided his fate.
He inherited from his father the indomitable will and energy, indomitable character, courage, fame, military gift and extraordinarily practical spirit.
His mother was closer to his soul and the influence of this temperamental woman left an indelible mark on him.
His father's diplomatic, military, and political success, in turn, fueled his ambition and ignited his dreams of leadership and fame.
Plutarch mentions that:
“Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy did not want to receive gold, luxury and enjoyment from his father, but wanted a state that would give him the opportunity for battles, wars and deeds full of honor and glory ”.
However Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy to the Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy
owed him much more than one state. No one could direct him better in the military skill than the man whose power was constantly winning, and the army created by his father was the most perfect weapon one could only desire to achieve his desires. Although busy with himself and his affairs, indifferent and rude to his closest, Vasileos Philippoy obviously had weaknesses towards his successor and followed with pride and enjoyment the development of his strong individuality.
The young prince Alexandroy was raised by Lenka, the sister of Klito the Black, his future general and bodyguard in battle.Later by Leonid who was very strict.A relative of his mother Vasilissas Olympia who was Lizmahoy uncle.
One of the young prince Alexandroy first teachers was Leonid, a relative of Vasilissas Olympia, who struggled to control the defiant boy. Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy hired Leonid to train young people in math, archery, and horseback riding (training and caring for horses).Alexandroy favorite teacher was Lysimachoy. This teacher devised a game in which the young prince Alexandroy imitated the hero Achil, АХ - IL - the god of the sun.
Achil was a hero-warrior from a famous ancient poem called The Iliad, or - ILI YADA - War of ILI . Achil became the model of the noble warrior for Vasileos Alexandroy, and he set an example for this hero. This game delighted Vasilisis Olympia because her family claims the hero as an ancestor.
When prince Alexandroy was 10 years old a horseman from Thessaly brought a horse to Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy. The horse refused to be ridden, so Vasileos Philippoy ordered it to be removed. The young prince Alexandroy, however, asked to try to ride the horse and tame it. Vasileos Philippoy initially refused but then agreed. The young prince Alexandroy saw that the horse was afraid of his shadow, so he positioned the horse opposite the sun, then calmed him down and ride the horse. He named the horse Bukefil - Buka head, hard head - hard faithful.
Bukefil - Buka head, hard head - hard faithful.
The Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy told to he son Alexandroy after this event:
''My dear son, find another country to rule, because Makedonia is too small for you. ''
At the age of 13, the vasileos Makedonon Philippoy thought that his son needed to be educated at a higher level. Many teachers were rejected by the vasileos Makedonon Philippoy such as: Isocrates, Speusipus.He entrusted that work to Aristotle of Stagira. The Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy undertook to rebuild this city previously destroyed by him. Thus Aristotel, who had previously resided from the island of Lesbos, came to Makedonia in Mieza where the young prince Alexandroy was educated with other nobles. Born of such a mother and father, the young prince Alexandroy also had the good fortune to become a student of the greatest philosopher and scientist in antiquity. When the prince Alexandroy was fourteen, the vasileos Makedonon Philippoy brought Aristotel to Makedonia and entrusted him with the upbringing of his son.Aristotel born in Stagira, Halkidik - Makedonia.
VERYIMPORTANT:should be noted thatalthoughAristoteleducated in AthensHe isMakedonian,and provesand the AthensUniversity hasnot receivedAristotl asequalsince Aristotelwas Makedonian.
THE UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS IN WHICH THE DOORS WERE OPENED ONLY FOR ATHINO-DANAES, NO FOR FOREIGNERS.HERE IT IS PROVED THAT ARISTOTEL WAS MAKEDONIAN, NOT ATHINO-DANAI.
(The Athenians, intoxicated with joy over the death of the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy ... The Athenian-Danai priest Eurimedon files a lawsuit against Aristotel. Aristotel, sentenced to death, returns to Makedonia, more precisely, to the island of Euboea, where he dies ... here are the Athenian-Danai.)
Aristotel was then about forty years old and was still one of Plato's most prominent students, far from his further glory. He was the son-in-law and friend of the ruler of Asia Minor, Hermiy, who maintained good relations with the vasileos Makedonon Philippoy. After the death of Plato, Aristotle retired to the court of Hermiy, where he was when the vasileos Makedonon Philippoy invited him to Makedonia.
Aristotle's meeting with the young prince Alexandroy is described as "one of the greatest moments in the history of mankind .”Although prince Alexandroy was still a child and a potential heir to the throne, and Aristotle had not yet begun his fruitful scientific activity which would glorify him through the centuries, we can not but see in them what will later become: an ingenious, heroic military leader, unifier of Asia and Europe, and an ingenious philosopher, in which it merged, matured and culminatedlong-standing philosophical and scientific mind.
Aristotel of Makedonia
In the small town of Miezi, in the interior of Makedonia, in the city of Nympheon, the future vasileos-ruler and his fellow peers were brought up. Aristotel did not think that the future ruler needed special instruction that would practically prepare him for the duty that awaited him. Gymnastics, horseback riding, hunting, and games have been replaced by poetry readings and poetry readings, as well as geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, and heuristics. Aristotel instilled in his young student a great love for poetry. He recited Homer's poems for him, and prince Alexandroy never separated himself from these works. His favorite heroes were Heracle (Makedon) and Achil, whom he considered his ancestors.
Aristotel influence on the Makedonian prince Alexandroy teaching can also be attributed to his great interest in the natural sciences, after which his conquering wars often took the form of research expeditions that enriched geography, ethnology, biology, botany, meteorology, andmany other sciences.
However, in what seems most important to us when it comes to the future vasileos (ruler) and military leader, in political terms, there was never a real understanding between the Makedonian prince Alexandroy and his teacher.
In his attitude towards the Makedonians, the Makedonian prince Alexandroy was primarily a follower of the Antisthenes school which was a long tradition of the Makedonian court, and not of Aristotel. However, the teacher's task is not only to convey his / her ideas to the student, but also to broaden his / her horizons and prepare him for independent thinking. Aristotel remained on the Makedonian court until prince Alexandroy accession to the throne of Makedonia, but his teaching mission lasted a maximum of three more years.
The young vasileos, despite the teachings of Aristotel, remained Makedonian, but he learned to respect all cultures and saw the positive side of all of them.
When prince Alexandroy was 16 years old, his lessons with Aristotel were interrupted. When Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy went to attack Vyzantion, sixteen-year-old prince Alexandroy was left as regent in Makedonia. While he was regent and his father When Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy was condemned, the Thracian Maedai tribe is rebelled. The prince Alexandroy responded quickly, quelling the rebellion of that tribe and settling Makedonians on their territory and rebuilding the city of Alexandreon. When Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy returned from Vyzantion, prince Alexandroy, with a small army, was sent to quell several more revolts in Thrac.
He was then sent to secure his father's life during the siege of the city of Perinthion. Meanwhile, the city of Amphisa began plundering the holy lands of the god ILE near Delphi. Still occupied in Thrace, Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy ordered prince Alexandroy to gather an army to prevent attacks by this city-state, but Makedonia was attacked by the Illyrians. This Illyrian attack was repulsed by Makedonian army led by prince Alexandroy.
The Makedonian prince Alexandroy was brave always wanted to be the first, buth for DESERVED and very jealous of his father, .. saying:
''If my father continues to win like that, there will be nothing left for me to win ''
THE NEW military tactic of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy
338 BCVasileos Makedonon Philippoy with his army and prince Alexandroy marched towards Thermobili, where they collided with a garrison at Thebes and set out to occupy Elatia.
Meanwhile, Athens under Demosthenes voted to unite against Makedonia.
Athens sent emissaries and asked Thebes to unite and become allies. Philip, supported by ''the Holy League'', marched on Amphisa, blocked the mercenaries sent by Demosthenes, and accepted the surrender of the city. Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy then withdrew from Elatea and offered peace with Thebes and Athens which was rejected by Thebes and Athens.
Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy with 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry welcomed them at Cheroneia - Boeotia.
The combined Theban-Athenian forces numbered about 30,000 troops. After a long confrontation with them, Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy ordered the right side of the Makedonian army to withdraw,
where the Athenians were, a gap was opened in the middle from where the Makedonian cavalry - Battalion Heroes under the leadership of prince Alexandroy attacked the Thebans - Sacred Theban Battalion, their most elite army, but also attacked the Athenians from behind,
while Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy attacked them even harder now, the Athenians began to escape. The Athenians under Demosthenes and Stratokle, who was an amateurs and they did not understand military tactics, but in provocations, insults and gossip, yes.
After a strong fight, prince Alexandroy managed to TOTALLY destroy the holy Theban company. 254 Theban soldiers from the Sacred Theban Battalion were killed. The other captured Theban soldiers were sold as slaves, with which Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy set up a military base in Thebes. From Thebes, Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy went to Athens and handed over the captured Athenian soldiers. For this gesture, the Athenians made a life-size statue of the Makedonian Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy. He then marched on Corinth where he formed the Corinthian League, WHICH CORINTH LEAGUE SHOULD SERVE THE MAKEDONIAN RULERS. Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy was elected a lifelong leader as well as the future Makedonian rulers. They agreed to support Makedonia AGAINST THE WAR AGAINST PERSIA, and only Sparta was against.
After returning to Bellas, Makedonia, Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy fell in love with a young noblewoman named Kleopatra Evrydika, who was the granddaughter of one of his generals, Atal. Then position od prince Alexandroy changed, as he succeeded of Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy. He could have lost that position.
During the festivities of Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy and Eurydice, Attal, drunk and asked the gods to give birth to a son, who would be the ruler of Makedonia.Then prince Alexandroy shouted angrily:
'' WHAT I AM THE I, ONE BASTARD ''
... and he threw the cup from which he drank towards Atal.
Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy drunk took out his sword and approached Alexander, but stumbled and fell.Then prince Alexandroy said angrily:
'' SEE,.... IS
TO ONE LAME WHO CANNOT BE HOLDED ON FEET YOU WILL ALLOW IT TO LEAD YOU AGAINST PERSIA ''.
Then the prince Alexandroy fled Makedonia.
He went to Dodona in Molossia to his Vasilissas Olympia mother's brother, then he went to Illyria where he was received as a guest, although they lost a few years ago.
The prince Alexandroy after six monthsTHANK YOU FOR THE DIPLOMACY OF HIS FRIEND DIMITRI FROM CORINT, returned to Makedonia. The following year, the strpot - the governor of Asia Minor, Pichodar, offered his older daughter for the wife of the epileptically ill prince Aridey the future Philippoy THIRD. The prince Alexandroy he did not agree with that and sent Thessaley from Corinth to Pichodar with a that message:
''SHOULD NOT OFFER HE DAUGHTER TO ARIDEY, BUT SHOULD GIVE IT TO ALEXANDROY, BECAUSE HE WAS THE ONLY LEGITIMATE SUCCESSOR FOR THE THRONE .''
When prince Aridey heard this, he rebuked prince Alexandroy, because he wanted to marry Pichodar's daughter. For that the prince Aridey sent four best friends of the prince Alexandroy into exile: Harpal, Nearch, Ptolemy, and Erigoy, and Thessaley sent him from Corinth to prison.
336 BCAt the wedding of the daughter of the Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy, Kleopatra with she mother Olympia's brother Alexander FIRST of Molossia in the city of Ege (Aegea), Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy was killed by Pausaniy in the theater. The two are said to have had an unresolved problem. Pausaniy he tried to escape but was killed by those who persecuted him, among those who persecuted Pausaniywere also two friends of the prince Alexandroy, Perdicca and Leonat.
Then the prince Alexandroy HE WAS PROCLAIMED OF VASILEOS (king) of Makedonia, VASILEOS - YOUR LIGHT of Makedonia, FROM THE MAKEDONIAN ARMY and the Makedonian nobles.
Coronationwith a fresh laurel wreath, the symbol of the God of the Sun -Ile
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy on the Makedonian throne
How his father contributes to perfecting the Makedonian phalanx, especially the Makedonian cavalry - ''ЧBATTALION OF HEROES'' AND FORMES ITS OWN BODYGUARDS UNDER THE NAME '' КUMITI '' - ''cumitatos'' as Latin historians write, just like his father with '' The Silver Spears ''.
Vasileos - YOURE LIGHT - Makedonon Alexandroy ruler of Makedonia
In 336 BCat the age of twenty the prince Alexandroy become Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy ruler of Makedonia.
Lorandite,is the foreign name for this mineral
According to scientists, thallium can lead to an inexhaustible source of energy.
There are 32 known thallium minerals, 17 of which can be found in the Alshar mine in the Republic of Macedonia. The most famous mineral of thallium is certainly lorandite.
According to legend, the power of lorandite was first discovered the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, it is believed that the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy phalanx coated its shields with lorandite.
IN THE BATTLES HE WAS ALWAYS LEADING, VASILEOS MAKEDONON ALEXANDROY ALWAYS CORRECTLY CHARGED WITH THE MOVEMENT OF THE MAKEDONIAN ARMY FROM THE WEST TO THE EAST, THERE WAS A STRONG LIGHTNING FROM THE SHIELD WHICH BLIND THE OPPOSITE ARMY. ON THE SHIELDS OF THE MAKEDONIAN PHALANXIT WAS SCULPTED GRAVED THE FAMOUS SUN FROM EGE (Aegea) - THE SUN OF VASILEOS MAKEDONON PHILIPOY.
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy began his reign by assassinating his cousin Amintoy FOURTH, he then killed two princes of Lyncestis, while the third was spared. Vasilissas Olympia killed Cleopatra Evrydike with her newborn baby of Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy,
who ordered them to be burned alive. When Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy learned of this, he became very angry with his mother. Atal, who was at the time in the Makedonian reconnaissance in Asia Minor, was also ordered to be killed. Atal corresponded with Demosthenes about the situation in Athens.
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy spared his brother Aridey.
In the meantime, the news of the death of Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy in Attica was received with general relief, because no Danai officer or statesman returned home from the Ege's celebrationdid not think that young Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, even if he manages to retain the throne, will be able to carry out the military plans of the slain ruler, everyone assumed that Makedonia would surely be quiet for many years now, city - states will be free to reject agreements with their aggressive northern neighbor or let them fail.
At the news of the assassination of Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy, Thessaly, Thebes, Athens, and the Thracians in the north immediately revolted. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy responded quickly. He tried to use diplomacy first. He surrounded Thessaly with 3,000 horsemen.Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was behind Olymp and the Osa Pass. So the Thessalians surrendered, and the Thessalian cavalry joined the side of Makedonia.
Thus Makedonians continued down to the Peloponnese. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy stopped at Thermobili Pass, where he was elected leader of the Holy League. Thebes, who was most active against him, immediately surrendered when he and the Makedonian army appeared at its gates. Athens asked him for peace, and in Corinth he was elected "Hegemon" - leader of the Corinthian League. While in Corinth, he received news that the Thracian uprising had spread.
335 BCVasileos Makedonon Alexandroy invaded Thrace to deal with the rebellion, which was led by the Illyrians and the Tribals. On the way to Agriani he was reinforced by a Thracian tribe led by Langar.
The army marched to the Haem crossing where it encountered two Thracian garrisons stationed at high altitudes. The Thracians made combat devices with which they threw stones at the Makedonians. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy ordered them to attack in a diluted formation, with the help of the Makedonian archers who attacked the fortified place with fire arrows, so that the heavy infantry reached the top of the hill. Meanwhile, the Tribals, led by their ruler Surm, attacked the Makedonians from behind,
but they were repulsed at on a clearing where they were run over by the Makedonian phalanx and cavalry,
killed about 3,000 enemy soldiers.
„ In the spring he (Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy) headed for Thrace, against the Tribals and the Illyrians; he knew that the Illyrians and the Tribals were belligerent, and because they were also his neighbors, he did not think he should leave them before leaving home so far away, without completely subduing them. Thrace, the territory of the independent Thracians, was invaded starting from Amphipolition ... They (the Thracians) had taken the peak of Chaimos (today's Stara Planina - Old Mountain) and were prepared to hinder the advance of the expedition ... They had assembled combat vehicles... to serve as a defensive fortification if they will be pressed. They also planned... where the steepest mountain is, to push the cars towards the Makedonian phalanx....
... And it came to pass exactly as he commanded and predicted Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy. Namely, one part of the battle cars passed the phalanx, and the others, rolling over the shields, did little damage and no one died under the battle chariots. And then, when they saw that the war chariots, of which they were most afraid, could not harm them, The Makedonians were also encouraged by the battle shout attacked the Thracians. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy he ordered the archers from the right wing to come in front of the rest of the Makedonian phalanx from which they would throw arrows at the Thracians during each of their attacks. He himself took the soldiers from the guard, the shield-bearers and the Agrians and led them to the left wing. There the archers repulsed with arrows the Thracians coming down and the phalanx fighting closehad no difficulty in displacing lightly protected men and poorly armed barbarians. However, they did not receive Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, who was attacking from the left, but threw down their weapons and began to flee who where can for the mountain. One thousand five hundred of them died; few were caught alive, yet all the women who followed the men were captured, and the children, with all their spoils.
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroysent the spoils to the coastal cities... he himself, passing over the top, headed for Chaimos towards the Tribals and arrived at the river Ligina three-day march from Istar (Danube) to Chaimos. Sirmos, the ruler of the Tribals... When approached Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, the Thracians, neighbors of the Tribals, and even Sirmos himself and his entourage fled to that island; but many Tribals fled back to the river.
When he heard of their movement, he (Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy) returned to attack the Tribals, which he found already stranded. Caught on tight, they were deployed along the gorge of the river. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroyattacked them by deploying the Makedonian phalanx in a deep formation ...
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy personally led against the center of the opponent the Makedonian phalanx of infantry and the remaining cavalry, which he had lined up in front of the phalanx. During the skirmish between the two sides, the Tribals did not back down. But when the packed phalanx launched attack on them and the horsemen no longer attacked them only with their spears, but also with the bodies of the horses themselves fell on them from all sides, then they fled through the gorge to the river. Three thousand were killed during the escape, and the survivors were little caught, because there was a dense forest in front of the river and the night that was coming prevented the Makedonians from seeing them clearly and following them safely.
Ptolemaoy says that eleven horsemen and about forty infantrymen were killed by the Makedonians themselves.
On the third day of that battleVasileos Makedonon Alexandroyreaches the Istar River, the largest river in Europe, here, at the entry into the sea, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy took the warships that had arrived from Vyzantiumvia from the Pont Euxinefor sailing on the river... He loaded them with archers and heavily armed infantry ... and headed for the island, where the Tribals and Thracians had fled.
Therefore Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroywithdrew his troops and decided to cross Istar to attack the Scythians - Ghettos.
... And the Scythians - Ghettos did not withstand even the first attack of the cavalry, because they were shown incredible courage by Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, so easy to cross the Istar River, the largest river, in one night, without making a bridge across the river;and frightening was the thickening of the phalanx with a strong - the attack of the cavalry ... The Ghettos again left the poorly fortified city, riding as many children and women on horseback, as long as they could stand on their shoulders. Then they went as far as the river to the desert. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroytook the city and all the spoils left by the Scythians - the Ghettos ... After destroying the city, on the coast of Istar he offered a sacrifice to Dze - Savior - the god of the light, to Heracles (Makedon) and to the river Istar - Danube itself ...
In doing so to Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, deputies from other autonomous tribes near Istar and the tribal ruler Sirmos arrived. And they came from the Celts, who live in the Ionian Gulf. The Celts were big and proud of each other, but all expressed a desire for friendship with Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy.
Give to all and receive from all proofs of trust... He named them friends, made an alliance with them, and sent them home ...”
Arian, Alexander's Anabasa ..., book.1, preface, 1, pp. 2-5 ;
Then they headed for the Danube.There they clashed with the Getae tribe. With rafts 4,000 Makedonian cavalry and 1,500 phalanx managed to cross the other side of the Danube. To the surprise of the Makedonians, 14,000 soldiers from the Gaetae tribe withdrew from their city and left their city in the hands of the Makedonians. At that moment news came from Klito that the Illyrians and their ruler Glauki had revolted against the Makedonians.
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy and the Makedonians oppressed the Illyrians in a fortress in Belum. The next day Glauki came to the aid of the fortress. Philota, a Makedonian general and friend of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, was blocked in Taulanti.Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy immediately went to help his friend and managed to scare Glauki who was attacking Filota. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was blocked by the Illyrians and the Taulants. The terrain was very uneven.The Makedonians started shouting their battle shout so the Tulants got scared and fled to their city. After the reconnaissance of Belium, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy retreated tactically but at night attacked the city and set it on fire. Clayt and Glauky fled with their army.
While Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was waging a victorious war, news came from Thebes and Athens that they were rebelling again.
The Thebans and Athenians rebelled again.Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy reacted immediately and harshly.
When he heard about the events in Thebes (the revolt in Thebes against Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy and the Makedonians), Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy thought they should be taken seriously, for he had long doubted the city of Thebes, and was very much concerned about the attempt of the Thebans; the revolt could spread to the Lacedaemonians and some others in the Peloponnese and especially to the Aetolians. Because of that he arrived in Thessaly in seven days. From there he entered Boeotia in six days, until he arrived at Onhest with the whole army.
...The next day Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy reached Thebes ... There he camped, giving the Thebans the opportunity to change their minds and send envoys to him. They, on the other hand, were far from showing any humility ... Thus, leaving the city, the cavalry and a large number of lightly armed soldiers headed against the camp and shot at the front guards, killing several Makedonians. And Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy send lightly armed soldiers and archers to repel their attack ... The next day he (Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy) raised the whole army and surrounded the gates leading to Eleuthera and Attica. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, on the other hand, considering that he came more as a friend to the Thebans than as an enemy, waited in a camp near Kadmeia ...
...Perdiccas was then hit and hardly healed from the wound. His men, joining the archers of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, pressed the Thebans and followed the Thebans until they retreated to Heraclion. But when the Thebans returned again with a fighting cry, the Makedonians fled. As soon as Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy realized that his armies were on the run, and that the Thebans were in disarray during the persecution, confronted their Makedonian phalanx in battle line. The Thebans were pushed inside the gates and fled so much, that while fleeing to the city they failed to close the gates. Така, the Makedonians who were persecuting them entered the walls with them ...
Because the Makedonians were pressuring them from all sides and Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy appeared from one side, and after some time from the other side, the Theban cavalry rushed towards the field, and the infantry saved themselves as they pleased. Then, in a rage, the Makedonians, not only the Thebans, but also the Phocians and Plataeans and the other Boeotians, although they did not fight with the Thebans, killed them without any order.…
This Theban defeat both in terms of the size of the lost city and in terms of the severity of the action and in general, no less because of the unexpectedness of the event for both the winners and the losers, as much as it scared the participants in the event, scared all the other enemies of Makedonia. The Sicilian defeat of the Athenians, although according to the number of killed brought no less misery to the city, however, because the army was destroyed far from their home, and most of it was made up of allies instead of domestic soldiers, and their city remained, and later fought with the Lacedaemonians, the allies, and the great ruler (meaning Persia)...
On the other hand, among the Thebans the uprising was raised hastily and recklessly, and the conquest took place without difficulty for the conquerors, and with numerous massacres, as is the case with kindred peoples because of old hatred. The complete enslavement of the polis, which was among the first in strength and military superiority in the Peloponnese, it was quite naturally associated with divine wrath: that the Thebans long and widely repayed the betrayal in the Persian Wars…
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy decided to entrust Thebes to the allies who took part in the attack: to be stationed in Cadmia, and the city to be razed to the ground, the territory to be divided among the allies, and the sanctuaries to be preserved; children, women and survivors of Thebes to be enslaved, except the priests and priestesses and those who were friends of Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy and Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, or hosts of the Makedonians ...
As soon as the other enemies of Makedonia understood the fate of the Thebans, the Aitols sent envoys, tribe by tribe, to receive forgiveness.
The Athenians elected 10 deputies from all Athenians, people known for their friendly relations with Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy and sent them to convey to him the untimely congratulations from the citizens of Athens, that he had returned safely from the campaign of the Illyrians and the Tribals, and that he had punished the Thebans for the uprising. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy mostly in a friendly tone, he replied to the messenger, but wrote a letter in which he asked: Demosthenes, Lycurgus, Hyperidae, Polyeuctus, and Harit, because he blamed them for the defeat at Cheroneia and for the mistakes made later in death of Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy, against him and Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy. He also showed them that they were no less guilty of the Theban uprising than the Theban insurgents themselves.
The Athenians did not betray these people, but sent a second envoy to Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, begging him to reduce his anger at those he asked for.
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy did so, perhaps out of respect for the city, or because he was in a hurry for the campaign against Asia and wanted to leave behind that he could be trusted.
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CITY - STATE OF THEBA
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy in just two weeks he covered 1000 km with the Makedonian phalanx. When they heard of this speed, the Athenians and other city-states changed their minds and did not come to the aid of Thebes, who counted on their help.
General Perdiccas attacked the main gate of the City after breaking the resistance, whereupon he was severely wounded, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy with the rest of the Makedonian phalanx entered the city, the Makedonians set fire to the city, flattening it, sparing no one.
They killed 6,000 Thebans and sold 30,000 as slaves. Thebes, which offered the strongest resistance, was conquered by great bloodshed, the city was destroyed, and its territory divided among the other neighbors of Thebes- allies to the Makedoniansе. The Thebans were sold into slavery, and only the priests, the descendants of the poet Pindar and the supporters of Makedonia were spared.
After great preparations, he left general Antipater with 13,500 troops to oversee the cities states, the Illyrians, the Thracians and headed for "Hellispont", which is a Roman-Latin name for XE ILE PONT - the passage of the God of Light XE ILE to Pontus - Ilepont, today, the Dardanelles.
REASON FOR THE WAR WITH PERSIA
IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER THAT A REASON FOR THE WAR WITH PERSIA IS THE PREVIOUS PERSIAN OCCUPATION OF MAKEDONIA FROM PAGEON THE SIDE OF THE PERSIAN RULERS,
BECAUSE MAKEDONIA WAS OCCUPIED AND HUMILIATED BY THE PERSIAN RULERS ... in that war the Makedonians received support from the Corinthian League, but, NOT FROM SPARTA,... NOT FOR SOME OTHERS 'INTERESTS AS SOME PEOPLE WANT TO SAY.
Makedonian rulers were in close blood relations with some rulers from Middle Asia, so they had their support, to break free from Persian rule.
The holy places of the Makedonians
The most important gods for the Macedonians before they took the Christian Faith and other religions were the belief in the GREAT MOTHER - MA (EARTH) and ILE THE GOD OF THE SUN (THE SUN) .
MAIN CULTURE PLACE OF GOD ILE WS IN THE TEMPLE ON THE MOUNTAIN OLYMP - a temple located on the north side of Mount Olympus and where the Makedonian rulers organized the Olympic Games. The god of the sun Ile was worshiped and by other peoples but also in the form of another name.
WHILE MAIN CULTURE PLACE WITH THE TEMPLE - a temple located on the east side of the Rhodope Mountains, WHERE WAS WORSHIPED THE GREAT MOTHER - MA, WAS
ON THE PLACE HYPER - ICON - THE MOST HOLY PLACE FOR MAKEDONIANS, which place was also mentioned in the book of Melegene (Homer): The Iliad and the Odyssey during the Ilion War (Trojan War). So the Macedonians were big fans of the Great Mother Ma and FROM HERE: MAKE (mother) DON (god) I (and) A (my) -
Makedonia - country of the Great Mother Ma. The young Makedonian ruler Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy came to that place, where the priests told him that he would conquer the world, and the campaign against Persia would be successful..
PREPARATIONS OF THE VASILEOS MAKEDONON ALEXANDROY FOR THE PERSIAN WAR
Because peace was restored in the countries under the Thermobili pass, after returning to Macedonia (October 335), Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroyhe could finally devote himself to the preparations for the Asian campaign. But it was only forced peace that prevailed in the countries under the Thermobili pass. After gaining experience from the last two years, no one saw it as clearly as Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy did, so he made decisions regarding the preparation of war plans.
Because Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy did not trust many of the countries under the Thermobili pass, he left the faithful Antipater in Makedonia with half of his recruits, 12,000 phalanxists and 1,500 cavalry. Antipater was also responsible for keeping an eye on the League as a representative of the hegemon, with the title of strategist. The same suspicion was the reason for Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy to limit the contingents of the League to no more than was necessary for the Macedonian campaign.
Except for the fleet of 160 triremes, as the Athenian-Danai-''ancient fleet'' was called, but they were disbanded because Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy knew they could not be measured by the mighty Phoenician fleet, another 7,000 infantry and 600 horsemen from the Corinthian League are mentioned as hostages, as well as 1,500 Thessalian horsmens, which later, probably, joined the Makedonian army and gained its special trust, and played an important role in the great battles in Asia. Without cavalry, it is futile to place 7,000 infantry on the battle front. One gets the impression that, independent of the Thessalians, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy took the contingents of the Corinthian League more as a guarantee for peace in the countries under the Thermobili pass.
The Corinthian League Fleet was initially cautiously kept out of action. This was inevitable due to the great superiority, both in number and quality of the Persian fleet of 400 warships, with their excellent Phoenician and Cenriot warships.
The naval superiority of the enemy had a significant impact on Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy plans for war.Because the Persian navy controlled the sea, but the great danger came from the possibility of the Great Ruler to transfer the war to the land under the Thermobili pass and with his vast wealth to force the Athenians, Spartans and others to fight against Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy and Makedonia.
The sea was not considered as a solution due to the insufficient strength and unreliable nature, for that Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy made a skilful plan to paralyze the enemy naval advantage by first conquering the Mediterranean coast of the Persian state with the land army, in order to occupy the important places and ports of the Persian fleet, and above all the entire Phoenician coast.
At first the Makedonian warships followed the Makedonian army near the coast.
Unable to deal victoriously with the Phoenician navy, the Athenian-Danai navy was disbanded in the summer of 334 BC in Milet by Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, knowing full well that.
The fall of Persia
He had just fallen from a boat crossing the Strait of Dardanelles - the Strait of Ilepont, stopping off the coast of Asia Minor, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroyexclaimed:
HOW THERE IS ONE SUN IN THE SKY, THERE WILL ALSO BE ONE MASTER ON EARTH, HOW THERE IN THE SKY, THERE WILL ALSO BE ON EARTH ''.
and struck the spear into the ground.
MAKEDONON VASILEONDON MAKEDONIA - STATE OF LORD MAKEDONIA, STATE OF STATES
Makedononian army led by Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy crossed the Ilepont with about 42,000 troops, of which 25,000 were Macedonians, 7,000 Illyrians and Thracians. The rest mix of 5,000 to 7,000 Corinthian League soldiers and mercenaries, who were nothing but hostages of war and played no major military role in the Makedonian campaign against Persia.
Deputy of Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy was Parmenion, other important commanders were Perdicca, Crater, Cohen, Meleager, Antigon, and Parmenion son Philota.
BUT AND ALL THE OTHER COMMANDERS OF THE OTHER MILITARY UNITS WERE MAKEDONIANS .... ALL WERE UNDER THE COMMAND OF THE MAKEDONIANS.
After the departure of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy in a campaign against Persia almost the entire Peloponnese except Corinth and Arcadian Legaeput himself under arms to regain his freedom, following the authority of the Lacedaemonians, who alone refused to make peace with Makedonians Vasileos Makedonon Philippoy and Alehandroy and rejected their laws, "the loudest" were the Athenians-danais, under Demosthenes.
Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy was immediately greeted by the Persians, Sithridatoy, Mithridatoy and Memnon of Rody by the river Granic. Their names says that were rulers of the Makedonian colonies in Asia Minor.
THE BATTLE OF THE RIVER GRANIC
May 334 BC was the first great victory of Makedonia against Persia.
- Makedonians and their allies under comand of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy with about 5,000 cavalry and 26,000 infantry.
- The Persians led by satrapies with about 12,000 infantry, 4,000 - 5,000 ionian mercenaries (compatriots of the Athenian-Danes) from Asia Minor and 15,000 cavalry.
The numbers vary considerably depending on the source (Makedonians from 18,000 to 43,000), (Persians from 23,000 to 50,000).
The battle took place on the road from Abid - Daskalion ( near present-day Ergili, Turkey ), at the pass of the river Granik (today's Biga Kaj).
The Persians, Sithridatoy, Mithridatoy and Memnon of Rody and others set up their cavalry in front of the infantry and positioned themselves on the (east) river bank.
Makedonian army intercepted them on the third day of the march from Abid in May. It is not known whether Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy immediately attacked or crossed the river above and attacked at dawn the next day ( at the suggestion of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy deputy, Parmenion).
In any case, the Persians had a number of cavalry in contact with the first lines of Ionians from Asia Minor - compatriots of the Athenians-danai and the rest of of the battle of Cheroneia surviving a total of 20,000.
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy led the bodyguards elite cavalry of the vasileos-king in battle - CHETA IROI - HERO UNITS in a winged assault, while the Macedonian infantry companions - shield bearers, The Agrians legally constituted the rest of the pillar around the Persians. The Makedonian line was lined with a heavy phalanx in the middle and cavalry on both sides.
The battle began with a blow to the light infantry from the Makedonian left side, the side of Parmenion. The Persians had quite strengthened that side and the blow was repulsed, but then Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy began to attack with his cavalry companions in the classical wedge formation and broke through the Persian center. The Persians retaliated with a squadron of nobles on horseback.
In this clash several important Persian nobles were killed personally by Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy and his bodyguards, although the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was stunned by an ax blow given by a Persian nobleman. Before delivering the second and deadly blow, the nobleman was killed by the Makedonian officer Klito.Clyto saves the life of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy as Persian nobles Resak and Spitridat try to kill him. The Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy soon regained consciousness.
Then the Makedonian cavalry turned left and embarked on the Persian cavalry which at that time was fighting with the left side of the Macedonian line after the general attack. A hole was dug here and the Makedonian infantry rushed through it to attack the poor quality Persian infantry behind the line. After this, the two wings of the Persian cavalry retreated, noticing the collapse of the center. The Persian infantry also began to flee, many of whom were killed during the persecution.
The total number of Makedonian victims was from 100 to 200. The Persians lost 2,000 infantry in captivity, and about 1,000 cavalry and 3,000 infantry were killed, mostly during the escape.
Athena - Danish mercenary who fought on the side of the Persians, were very motivated
From of 20,000 ions from Asia Minor - compatriots of Athenians - Danai survived only 2000 who were sent to Macedonia as slaves.
The battle of the Granic River showed the Persians that the Makedonian army was a serious superpower. The immediate effects of the battle were the establishment of landing territory for further battles against the Persians.
After the initial victory against the Persian forces at the Battle of Granic, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy accepted the surrender of the provincial capital and treasures of the city of Sardis and continued along the Ionian coast. At Halicarnassus (now Bodrum in Turkey) Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy successfully carried out the first of many sieges, forcing his opponents - the mercenary captain Memnon of Rodi and Orontobates - the Persian satrap of Caria - to retreat across the sea. The Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy left Caria to Ada, who was ruler of Caria before being ousted by her brother Pihodar. From Halicarnassus Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy continued into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylia Plain (near present-day Antalya - Turkey), taking control of all coastal cities. From Pamphylia onwards, the coast had no significant ports and therefore Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy continued to the mainland. At Termes Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy conquered but did not attack the city of Pisidia.
In the ancient city of Gordium, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy untied the previously unsolvable Gordian knot, a riddle that legends say could only be solved by the future "ruler of Asia". According to one story, he simply cut the knot with a sword.According to another, he untied it by removing the part of the chariot around which he was tied.
He appointed Callas satrap in the area where Arsit ruled, ordering the population to pay the same taxes as he paid Dario; from the Barbarians who had come down from the mountains to obey him, he asked them all to return home. He sent Parmenion to capture Daskaleon (Daskaleon is the capital of Ilepont Phrygia, then ruled by Arsit, who committed suicide after the battle of Granic), which he did because the crew had left the city.
Arrian., 1, 17, 1-2 (Arian, War of Alexandroy)
VASILEON MAKEDONON ALEXANDROY TURNS THE CITY ASPEND FROM FREE TO DEPENDENT CITY
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy ordered the Aspendians to send prominent men as hostages, to give the horses they promised as 100 talents instead of 50, to submit to the satrap he would appoint, to pay an annual tax to the Makedonians, and finally to acceptinterrogation on the territory of their neighbors for which they were accused of holding it illegally.
Arrian, 1, 27, 1-4 ).
Makedonian army of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy passed the Gates of Cilicia, met and defeated the main Persian army under the command of Dario 3 at the Battle of Iss.
''WhenVasileos Makedonon Alexandroy anchored, sent Parmenion with a small army to announce the seizure of sea crossings leading from Cilicia to Syria, and he headed west to avoid the Trakea mountain range in Cilicia, in order to conquer and taked the coast all the way to Lycia and to fully protect his background before meeting the Great Ruler.
The quick completion of this task in a few days showed that the former power returned to him. On the way to the old Ionian ancient city of Soloi,received the news that his generals to whom he had entrusted the siege of the fortress at Halicarnassus had won a great victory.
In honor of the victory, the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy prepared a feast, and expressed gratitude to the god Asclepius for the healing. In addition to the procession and torch races, there were gymnastics and music competitions, which were first organized here. There were soldier gymnastics competitions as well as art competitions featuring singers, musicians and artists who were probably brought from the military headquarters in Tare.
Then the main part of the army started the march from Tare to the east . When the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy came to Mal, he offered a sacrifice to the hero-prophet Amphilochon of Argos, who had a glorious prophecy here and was revered as the founder of the city. In Mal he heard from Parmenion, who had meanwhile conquered the Preslaps, that Dario and his army had encamped at Sohoy in the plain of Syria, two days walk from the crossing they now call Bailan.
The Battle of the Pinar River in Syria
After Memnon's death, the Grand Ruler decided to personally take command and meet the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy in a decisive battle. To that reason, he assembled a large army in Vabylon. Late in the summer of 333 BC, he was informed that the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was in Galicia, Dario went to the Euphrat accompanied by a large retinue of luggage and then crossed the plain east of Mount Amman, o prepare when the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy enters the Bailan Gorge and here in Sohoy to begin a battle with his large army. Starting from his great superiority, Dario believed in victory.
In addition, he realized that he should value the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy as an opponent, which can be deduced from the fact that some time before that, as a true ruler, he had encouraged Alexander the Lyncianto kill the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy. As soon as the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy heard the news about Sohoy, when he was in Mal, convened a military council to agree on what to do and, with council approval, decided to oppose the Grand Ruler.
However, the battle was not fought on the other side of Mount Aman in Sohoy, but on this side of northwestern Syria, south of Iss. How did this come about? It is one of the most interesting and exciting parts of the history of the war. The road of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, formerly sent by Parmenion to spy on and occupy, led through the Cilicia Gorges, along the Syrian coast. Then the road turns south, passing near Iss, across the Pinar River (Deli Chai) and the small Pajas Riverto the Syrian Sea Pass and through the mountain pass Jonah continues to Miriandr (near present-day Alexandrion-Iskanderun). From here the road leads southeast through Amman from the Bailani crossing to the Syrian plain. This was the path that the young Cyr(us) once took and was known to the ancient peoples of the Xeophonic narratives.
After recovering from the disease in Issus, attacking to the south, the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy came to Miriandr, where due to the strong autumn storm and the rain that fell at night, his units remained in the camp the next day, presumably in order to rest before the coming battle. There, on the evening of his great surprise, he was informed by the deserters that Dario and his army were north of him, on the river Pinar. He found it hard to believe, and sent several officers to the north coast to check what he had heard: they confirmed the news.
How did this change of position come about? Dario encamped a few weeks ago in Sohoy and was waiting for the enemy from Cilicia. However, the departure of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was delayed by his illness and other events in Cilicia. His contempt for the small army of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, which he thought he would run over with his numerous cavalry, together with the approach of winter and the difficulties in such conditions, doubts him and his plan.
In order to make his huge army more mobile, he sent to Damascus his wealth and the bulk of his luggage, and together with the army, accompanied by a huge retinue and his family, started east of Mount Aman north to the Lion Preslap (Arslan-Boghas), then southwest across the mountain, across the Aman overpass (Toprak Kalesi) to the coastal plain of Iss, from there to advance towards Cilicia.
By comparing the distance covered by the two armies and their different mobility, it can be assumed that Dario appearance began a few days before the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy left Mal. Almost at the same time as Dario arrives at the waterfall of Amman, the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy rises in Miriam.
Thus the two armies, separated from the mountain range of Amman, they suddenly diverged on different slopes on the same mountain, with Dario now to the north and the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy to the south.
Darius was first informed of the accidental arrival of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy in Issus who met with the army and learned that the Makedonian army had just passed and continued south. Soon he left too and are rightly encamped on the Pinar River, apparently intending to follow the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy through the overflow Bailan and so on in the end, according to the original plan, to start a fight in the wide Syrian plain that suited him much better.
Fortunately, the opposite happened.The moment the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was informed of Dario position on Pinar river, with the intuition of a genius he overlooked the advantage given to him by this unexpected situation and decided to go to war. the The Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was cut off from its base, so Pinar's defeat would be catastrophic. Меѓутоа, he absolutely believed in victory, which until then had led him from one success to another.
He relied on the quality of military superiority and his fighting talent. The only danger he could face was being surrounded by a large Persian army. Even now this danger was not much less than that if he met the enemy in the vast Syrian plain. And in the plain by the river Pinar it could be trapped between the mountain and the sea.
Rapid action was needed. Therefore, with caution and composure that were his characteristics in the most important moments of the decision, the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy took all necessary measures to meet the enemy the next day. Horsemen and archers were immediately sent to spy as far as the northern slope, and that was very essential to his plan.
After giving his units enough time to prepare before departure, he set out with his army, rose to the top of the crossing until midnight, set up a guard and allowed the army to rest among the rocks.
After the first morning rays, the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy descended into the plain first in a narrow column with the infantry forwardwhich gradually expanded into a battle lineas far as the plane allowed. Here, again as on Granik, the advance to the battlefield was made in great silenceand precisely as if he were in a parade space, not in front of the enemy.
Thus, Pinar was the scene of one of the most mentioned battles, a duel of opposite actions. There is a good description of the battle by later authors based on two independent and original sources: Ptolemaoy, who was personally one of the soldiers at the front and Callisthenes who as a civilian could see it from afar.
The Pinar River, which has steep banks in its upper and middle reaches, was used by the Persians, as on the Granic, as an obstacle to defending their front. The mistakes of the substitutes at Granik were removed this time, so that the best units, the Ionian mercenaries, were placed in front of the center of the battle line. To the right and left of them stood the Orientals, the heavily armed Kardaki, whose right wing was behind the cavalry, which Dario placed across the river to mask the operations, and then retreat across the river ''.
Battle of Iss 333 BC
The Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy SPEECH OF THE MAKEDONIANS AND OTHER SOLDIERS BEFORE THE BATTLE:
'' TO THE ILYRIANS, THE THRACES AND THE OTHER SOLDIERS I GIVE THEM GOLD LIKE THEY HAVE NEVER HAD, ... TO THE MAKEDONIANS I GIVE ETERNITY ''
- Makedonians and their allies, led by the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy. Army: 5,000 cavalry, 26,000 infantry.
- The Persians led by Darius 3, Arsam, Reomitro, Atizij, Bubak and Sabak with 30,000 ions from Asia Minor - compatriots of the Athenian - Danai mercenaries, 40,000 infantry ( 10,000 Immortals - Persian bodyguards of the Great Ruler - the most elite army in Persia) and 20,000 cavalry.
Immortals - Persian bodyguards of the Great Ruler
The battle was fought south of the ancient city of Iss, near the present-day city of Iskenderum - Alexandreon, Turkey, on both sides of the small Pinar River (probably today's Pajas River). The place was quite far from the Gulf of Isch, and the surrounding mountains were only 2.6 km away, so that Dario could not use the large number of his soldiers frontally.
The Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy embarked on a campaign in Asia in 334 BC and defeated the local Persian satraps at the Battle of Granic.He then continued his occupation of Asia Minor.
While Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was in Tars he learned that Darius was gathering a huge army in Vabylon. If Dario wanted to reach the Gulf of Iss, he had the support of Admiral Farnabaz, who was still operating in the Mediterranean., so that it would facilitate the supply and be able to reach the enemy from behind. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy kept his main army at Tarsus, but sent Parmenion forward to occupy the coast of Iss. In November, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy received a report that a large Persian army had already entered the Syrian city of Sochi. The Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy decided to gather his divided army and march south of Iss across the Ionian Gorge.
Many modern historians claim that the Persian infantry were poorly armed, that the more numerous and hitherto undefeated, fear and trembling for others, the Persian army "was a child's play" for the Makedonians ... but that is not true, .. simply for the superiority of the Makedonians is that the Makedonian phalanx was perfectly trained, highly motivated and most importantly led by the most capable military leader at the time MakedonianVasileos Makedonon Alexandroy.... while the Persians were led by their Persian ruler Dario, who had probably no military training ... they claimed to be a demigod.
Dario knew that Parmenion was holding the gorge, so he headed north. The Persians captured Iss without any problems and killed all the sick and wounded Makedonian soldiers who remained there. Now Dario understood that he had managed to come from behind the Makedonian army and cut off supplies. He then ordered the army to a good defensive position along the Pinar River and waited for Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy to attack. Persian archers
There are different opinions about the reasons for the battle. One convincing view based on Curtius is that Darius was forced to move the camp to a field suitable for Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy because the Macedonians fought defensively on Parmenion recommendation. Dario could not support the army during the winter, and there were already riots in his Phoenician cities over the arrival of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy. Dario was forced to move his large army to a hill on the battlefield, a position which was of great benefit to the smaller army of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy.
Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy waited for Darius to come south of the Amman mountain range because the crossing that Darius would use, the Belen Pass, was much closer to Sochi and gave the best access to the territory that Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was defending. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy waited 16 km west of the Belen Pass near Miriander to set a trap for Darius at the Belen Pass or through the Ionian Pillar if he went north, where the Dario army would be disorganized and scattered in the strait. But Darius was moving north from Sochi and around the mountains, coming from behind Makedonian army's position and shortening his communications. Thus Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was forced to march towards Dario, who caught him unprepared with a large wing maneuver. This gives the illusion that Dario was playing defensively because Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was forced to march towards him.
The Makedonians continued through the Pillar of Ion.Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy and his cavalry companions were on the right wing, and the Thessalian federal cavalry on the left.The phalanx was commanded by Parmenion.
Dario formed his line by placing the heavy cavalry along the shore to his right, then ion mercenaries from Asia Minor 12,000 in number. To the Ionian battle lines - compatriots of the Athenians - Danais, Dario placed the Persian infantry, the Kardaks, along the river and at the foot, where they bent over the other shore and posed a threat to the right wing of Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy (this formation was similar to the letter '' Γ '' - g). Arrian gives an exaggerated figure of 20,000 for these troops. Darius settled in the middle with the best infantry, the Ionian mercenaries and the ruling cavalry guard. According to some historians, he wanted to imitate the Macedonian military formation seen at the Battle of Granik.
The Persian cavalry attacked Parmenion, and the Allied cavalry crossed the river to open the battle. The left wing of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy soon became essential, as at Gavgamela two years later, where Parmenion managed to hold the wing against a superior number of Persians long enough for the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy to carry out a calculated cavalry attack against Darius and defeat the Persian army. The shield-bearers under the leadership of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy on foot attacked the Kardakas on foot at this time and managed to break through a hole in the Persian ranks.
Then the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy mounted a horse at the head of his equestrian companions - '' heta iroi - company of heroes '' and began to rush straight to Dario, who had fled from the battlefield. Because of this, the Persians began to retreat.The Makedonian cavalry pursued the Persians in retreat until it got dark. There was heavy bloodshed here due to the massive, unorganized withdrawal of the Persians, who lost about 80,000, and the persecution by the Makedonians. The Makedonians lost nearly 500 soldiers. The defeat of the Persians at the Battle of Granic marked the beginning of the end of Persian power.This was the first battle the Persians lost in the presence of Dario.
Darius fled across the river Euphrat, leaving his mother, wife and children at the mercy of the Macedonians.The Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy once again defeats Darius at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC.
Dario was forced to flee the battle after his army disintegrated, leaving his wife, two daughters: Statheira and Dripetti, his mother Sisigamba, and an invaluable amount of wealth.
After the battle of Issus, when they went to visit the captive family of Dario, the ruler of Sisigamba mistakenly knelt down to pray to Hepheastion for her life,.. because he was taller, and they were both young and wearing almost the same clothes.When she realized the mistake she asked Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy to forgive her, but Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy said:
'' YOU DIDN'T MISTAKE A MOTHER AND HE IS ALEXANDROY ''.
Continuing along the Mediterranean coast, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy conquered Tir (modern-day Lebanon).
In the beginning, Tir wanted to surrender to Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy, .. Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy wanted to pray in the temple of Heracles in Tir ... That wish of the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was rejected by the governor of Tir.
Siege of Tire
In 332 BC, the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy set out to conquer Tire, a strategic coastal base. Unable to attack the city, the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy laid siege to Tire for seven months, but Tire survived. He used the rubble from an abandoned land town to build an embankment, and when the island's walls were within reach, he began bombarding them with siege machinery and finally broke through the fortifications. The Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy was so angry with the way the citizens of Tire defended themselves and the loss of his soldiers that he tore down half the city as punishment. All 30,000 inhabitants were massacred or sold into slavery.
Eventually, as if nothing had happened, he went to pray at the temple of Hercule.
The letter from Dario
During the siege the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy received a letter from the Grear Ruler Dario THIRD offering a truce. He offered to pay a ransom for his family of 1000 talents and thanked Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy for their well-being. Darius also offered to cede all his lands west of the river Euphrat and to create an alliance and friendship that would be of mutual interest.
- General Parmenion advised the Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy to accept the offer.He told to Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy:
I would accept, if I were Alexandroy.
- Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy he replied:
Me too, if I were Parmenion!"
In response to the Grear Ruler Dario THIRD letter, Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy replied:
'' Your ancestors invaded Makedonia and harmed us without us being the first to harm them. I have been appointed Vasileos (commander-in-chief) of the Makedonians and others, I went to Asia to punish the Persians, because you are aggressors. You supported Perintion, who harmed my father and sent an army to Thrace, which was under our control. My father died at the hands of the conspirators ordered by you, as you yourself boasted to everyone in your letters; You killed Ars with the help of Bagoa and gained the throne unjustly, contrary to Persian customs, harming the Persians. You sent hostile letters to everyone about me, to push them into a war against me, and you sent money to the Spartans, money that no one but the Spartans would receive. Your envoys have corrupted my friends and tried to destroy the peace I have established.
For that is why I started an expedition against you and you started the argument. But now I have defeated all your satraps, as well as you personally and your army and "by the grace of God" I rule the World (So after the victory at the battle of Iss Vasileos Makedonon Alexandroy considered himself Vasileon - king of kings ). For all those who fought on your side and did not die in battle, but came to me, I am personally responsible. They are not on my side under duress, but participate in the expedition of their own free will. Therefore approach me as the master of all Asia. If you are afraid I will do something for you if you come in person, send some of your friends to assure you. Come to me and asks for your mother, wife, children. You will get them. Ask for anything else. Whatever you manage to convince me to give you, it will be yours.
In the future, when communicating with me, address me as the Lord of Asia. Do not write to me as an equal, but ask what you need from the owner of your property. If you do not, I will treat you as a sinner. If you want to become a ruler again, stand up and fight for the right , do not run away, because I will persecute youwherever you are. ''
When the Makedonian army led by the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy arrived in Gaza in Jerusalem to seek help for the embankment for the siege of Tire, the city of Jerusalem was under siege ,.. in the end the Makedonians reached the holy temple,.. The temple was surrounded by Jewish soldiers led by an old priest with white hair and a beard, but he held a sword in his hand. The Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy approached the priest, bowed to him and promised that the holy temple would be spared and if he wished he could spread the Jewish faith throughout VASILEONDON MAKEDONIA,.. The Makedonian generals asked him in astonishment Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy:
'' How is it possible for him to worship an old man?...
Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy replied:
''I DREAMED IN A DREAM THAT THIS OLD MAN WOULD PROPHECE TO ME THAT I WOULD CONQUER PERSIA ''
The priest told to the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy that he would do to him ''ETERNAL MONUMENT'' ... so THEN:
ONE YEAR ALL JEWISH CHILDREN IN THAT YEAR IF THEY WERE MALE GOT THE NAME ALEXANDER, AND IF THEY WERE FEMALE, THEY GOT THE NAME ALEXANDRA.
The future Jewish priests themselves took the name Alexander, and the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy and guaranteed freedom of religion.
From then on the Jews celebrated the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy as a liberator from the Persians,..
It is interesting that today the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy is in the memory of those people there, BUT HOW HE WALKED WITH A GOAT HORN,.. because the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy had a diadem of a goat horned figure... by imitating DZE the god of the light.
Coin with the image of the god DZE - the god of light
Makedonians knew the effect of opium in ancient times,.. and the Makedonian rulers dressed in purple cloaks like the color of young poppy leaves.
го имитира богот ALL
or DZE ( not Zeus ) нашето најсветло, нашето најбожествено, македонскиот бог на светлината Ѕе.
In the year 332 BC the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy tried to conquer Nubia, but encountered a strong military formation led by their ruler Candas, so he decided to send his forces to Egypt.
After the military campaign over the capture of Milet, the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroyhe needed to rest his army a little from hard wars, at the same time it was necessary to give time to the wounded and sick to re-engage in military operations, for these reasons, a regiment composed of weak and wounded soldiers was sent up to Phrygia where the wounded and sick Makedonians surrounded by numerous flocks of sheep, the pine forests and the Phrygians who spoke their Makedonian language, felt at home in Makedonia, which helped them heal wounds and diseases very quickly.
We have two pieces of information, one authentic from Herodotus and one from Harold Lamb. Both information unequivocally point to the fact that the Phrygians originated from Makedonia where they were called Brigi, and their language is the same as the language of the Makedonians.
Herodotus in "History, Polymia - book 7, chapter 73".has written:
“The Phrygians had equipment very similar to the Paphlagonian one, and they differed very little. To the Phrygians according to the Makedonians at the time when they lived in Europe and were neighbors of the Makedonians, their name was Briggs - Brigi , and when they moved to Asia, they changed their homeland and name at the same time and called themselves Phrygians''.
Makedonian - Phrygians protection
The Armenians were armed just like the Phrygians, because they are descendants of the Phrygians. Both of these nations were led by Artachmo, who was married to Darius' daughter..”
The Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy, headed for Egypt, where he had been before, and marched from Gaza on the seventh day and arrived at Pelusium in Egypt. His fleet sailed simultaneously from Phenicia to Egypt. And in Pelusium he found the ships anchored. The Persian Masaka, who was satrap of Egypt appointed by Dario, when he understood both the events of the battle of Iss and the shameful escape of Dario, as well as that both Phenicia and Syria and much of Arabia were occupied by the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy... Receive it friendly the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroyin cities and in the country....
... He reached Ileagrad through the desert. From there he crossed the Nile and arrived in Memphis.From Memphis sail along the river, down to the sea... Stop at the place exactly where the city of Alexandreion is located now, named after the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy. And it seemed to him that the place was very nice to build a city and that the city would be prosperous. And he became thirsty for work, he set the basic plan for the city and where the agora should be set, how many temples should be built ... Where should the surrounding wall be placed...
.... After this, the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroyhe was seized with a strong desire to visit Amon in Libya… the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy felt like a rival to Persey and Heracle (Makedon), because he was descended from both;but he also believed that he was descended from Amon, as the myths suggested that both Persey and Heracle were descended from Dze. It was with this thought that he turned to Amona, to learn more about himself, or to say that he had really learned...
As soon as spring came, the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy headed from Memphis to Phenicia ... When he reached Tire, he discovered that the fleet was already waiting for him to meet him....
... He himself had already headed up the Tampasak and the Euphrat River ...
... From there continue inland ... Through the land called Mesopotamia ....
... After leaving the Tigers, he crossed the land of Aturia ... On the fourth day, the scouts told him that horsemen had appeared in the field ... ...
An interesting thing was that there were already Makedonian colonies before the arrival of the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy in Asia Minor, and they asked to join the army, but were rejected because they were not trained.
The Paeonian light cavalry led by Ariston also took part in the Makedonian campaigns to the east. The Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy and the Makedonian army were greeted everywhere as liberators by the conquered peoples under Persian rule.
Ariston in battle Paeonian coin
332 BC the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy appointed Hepheastion as commander of his fleet, tasked with sending him by sea to Gaza. The task was not easy, and because the fleet was composed of different nations.Siege machines were to be unloaded during the siege in Gaza, and the terrain was very difficult.
At that moment the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy received news from Athens that the Athenians - Daneaes and Spartans had revolted.The Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy wrote to him about it. So Hepheastion was sent to carry out a reconnaissance.Hepheastion meets with Aristotle to make peace between the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy and Demosthenes and spartan avahto Agis 3. They were well inclined to this idea and temporarily Hepheastion saved the Makedonian interests in the city states.
After the capture of the city of Tire (or Sidon) in 332 BC.and Gaza, the road to Egypt was open. The cities of Phenicia, Palestine, and Egypt, without a fight, opened their doors and proclaimed the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy as their ruler. As a able politician, in Egypt he visited the temple of the Sun god Amon Ra, won over priests oppressed by the Persian government, and they proclaimed him the son of their supreme god and pharaoh.
His general Parmenion proposed to the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy to stop further military campaigns, but he was determined to finally destroy the great Persian state.
In the year 332 and the following 331, the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy was welcomed as the liberator of Egypt, which had hitherto been occupied by Persia. He was proclaimed the son of Amon, the Egyptian sun god, by Egyptian priests at the prophecy in the Shiva oasis in the Libyan desert. Since then, the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy has often referred to Amon as his father, and his image on the coins was with bull horns as a symbol of divinity. He founded Alexandreion in Egypt, which later, after his death, became the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
During the two years after the battle of Is the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy continued its occupation of the Mediterranean coast and Egypt. He then left Syria for the heart of the Persia.There he crossed the Euphrat and the Tigris without encountering any resistance.
Leaving Egypt, the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy continued to Assyria and on October 1, 331 BC.defeated Dario once more at the Battle of Gavgamela.
On October 1, 331 BC.the Makedonian phalanx of the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy defeated the Persian army of Dario THIRD
Dario's entire army numbered: 40,000 cavalry, 100,000 infantry, 200 chariots, a few elephants ....With such an army Dario encamped at Gavgamela by the river Bumod ...
Dario, when he was told that the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy he had already set out, deploying the army as for battle. And the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroyled the army deployed in battle order..
the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy ... before that battle, he stressed:
''It is not about Lower Syria or Phenicia, not even Egypt, but that it will be crucial for supremacy over all of Asia''.
In fact, there was no great need to encourage them to great deeds with a long speech because it was innate to them, but more because everyone should think within himself of the order in danger and of complete silence... and for the strong fighting cry ... to follow the commands wisely and to transfer them quickly to the battle lines; most of all, keep in mind everyone; most of all, everyone should keep in mind that the danger for everyone depends on his carelessness, and that complete success depends on his consistency. With these words and the like, he briefly encouraged them, and the military leaders replied that they had faith in him. He then ordered the army to feed and rest.
Permanion came to him in the tent and advised him at night to attack the Persians ... Аnd the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy he replied:
'' It is a shame to steal the victory, and that the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy should win openly and without deception''....
Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy as a rule he risked in his battles, but still considered the night too dangerous, and also in the defeat of Dario,
'' covert attack under the veil of night would be an excuse for Dario not to admit he is the worse commander of the worse army''.
Dario's army was deployed as follows:
On its left wing stood the Bactrian cavalry and with them the Dai and the Arachots. The Persians lined up after them... the Suzutzi followed, followed by the Cadusians...From the right wing, on the other hand, were the cavalry from Koilesiria and Mesopotamia ... and the Midianites, ... the Parthians and the Sakites, ... the Tapurs and the Hyrkans and .... the Albanians and the Sakesinite. In the center where the ruler Dario himself and his relatives were, the bodyguards stood... The elephants and fifty horse-drawn carriages that were stationed near Dario' reign ... the Ionian mercenaries, relatives of the Athenians-Danai, were lined up on both sides of the ruler and the Persians nearby, just opposite the Makedonian phalanx....
The army of the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy was lined up as follows:
Its right wing was occupied by the Makedonian cavalry of the "Hetairoi" - unit heroes, and in front of it stood the ruling detachment, led by Hepheastion, was the commander of the bodyguards of Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy, who was not of a the king unit but WERE OBLIGED TO PROTECT THE RULER - THE Vasileos IN BATTLE paied from the people. Until that time, Klito was in charge.... The commander of the entire cavalry of the "Hetairoi" was Philota, son of Parmenion. The phalanx of the Makedonians was preceded by the first auxiliary detachment of the shield-bearers of the Makedonian cavalry, followed by other shield-bearers, led by Nikanor, son of Parmenion ... On the left wing of the Makedonian phalanx stood the detachment of Crater, son of Alexander, and Crater himself commanded with the left wing of the infantry ... the cavalry of the allies lined up, led ... Erigoy, son of Larich. Next to them ... were the Thessalians, led by Philip, son of Menelay.The entire left wing was ruled by Permion, Philota's father, and the Farsal cavalry were stationed around him....
Such was the deployment of Makedonian forces on the front line. But he set up a second line, so that his phalanx would be two-sided ... Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy ordered the commanders of the second battle line, as soon as they noticed, that the Persians were surrounding their people, to direct themselves against them and to take a blow at the barbarians. Where the front made a bend ... either to pull the phalanx deeper or to narrow it, half of the Agryans of the ruling detachment were lined up on the right wing ... Next came the Makedonian archers ... and archers from the so-called mercenaries-veterans... In front of the Agrinians and the archers, the scout horsemen were lined up ... and the Paionians ... But before the whole battle line stood Menid's mercenaries ... In front of the ruling detachment ... stood half of the Argyans and the shooters of Balakros.These parts of the army took up positions opposite the horse-drawn carriages vehicles ...
The armies from all over the right camp were deployed of the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy as follows:
At the left end ... on that wing the Thracians were lined up, under the leadership of Sitalk, followed by the allies cavalry ... In front of all the armies from that sector, the mercenary cavalry was lined up on the front ... under the leadership of Andromache ... Thracian infantry were added as reinforcements. And the whole army of the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy consisted of 7,000 cavalry and about 40,000 infantry.
As the two armies approached, one could see Dario and the Persian bodyguards ... both the Indians and the Albanians and .. the Cririans ... standing directly opposite the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy and his ruling detachment.
Then the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy, after encouraging his right wing to move forward, led his army, and the Persians moved forward, giving the greatest weight to their left wing..... When he saw that the Makedonians were moving on a steep, steep terrain, Dario was afraid that his war chariots would come out useless, so he ordered him to attack the left wing with the cavalry in the front of the right wing, commanded by Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy himself and prevented him from moving further.
Then the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy ordered the Paeonians ... and the mercenaries to enter into battle with the Scythians, as a result of which the barbarians were repulsed.... However, the Bactrians, and the other parts, approaching the Paeonians and the strangers ... and managed to continue the fight the fight on horseback. And many soldiers of Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy fell, repressed by the large number of Persians ... But the Makedonians withstood their attacks and attacking them according to the combat units, broke their battle order.
Meanwhile, the Persians sent their sickly fighting chariots directly to Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy, ... to break up the fighting order of the phalanx. But here they were mostly deceived: because as soon as they approached, they started shooting at the Agrinians and the spearmen under the leadership of Balakro.... And so it happened that the chariots remained unharmed, but also those against which they were directed ... But later these chariots were defeated by the cavalry of the Makedonian army and the ruling corps guard.
When Darius had brought all the infantry, Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy ordered Aret to attack the cavalry that was circling around their right wing. He himself led his army in a column;but when the cavalry was sent to help those who turned around on the right wing and somehow left a gap in the battle line of the Persians, the emptiness was given to them and, making a wedge-shaped battle line from the cavalry of the Cheta Heroi - unit heroes and from the part of the phalanx that was deployed at that place, he led them twice and with a strong fighting shout directly to Dario .... there was a fight head to head;but then the Makedonian cavalry and Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy himself strongly attacked the enemy, actually beating them with their fists and cutting off the faces of the Persians with spears. And the Makedonian phalanx, compacted and frightened by the Makedonian spears, had already attacked them and Dareio... everything around him seemed terrible and he himself first turned and ran away.The Persians, who were trying to block the right wing with their horses, were frightened by the strong attack of Aretus' army.
There was indeed a great escape of the Persians in this place, and the Makedonians followed and killed the refugees.....
... it was reported that the left wing of the Makedonians was in trouble ... and there was a fierce action ... the captured Persians themselves, when they entered, joined them in the action and attacked the Macedonians. However, the commanders of the Makedonian armies that formed the reserve for the first phalanx ... wisely returned to the forehead, according to the original orders, and thus appeared in the background of the Persians;and there they killed many of those who had surrounded the animals with their equipment. Some turned away and fled. The Persian army on the right wing, having no idea that Dario had already escaped, rode around the left wing of the Makedonian army and attacked the Makedonian army led by Parmenion.
''It is assumed that the dog of Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy - Perito, was a Sharplanin.The ancient historian Plutarch in his biography of Vasileon Makedonon. The ancient historian Plutarch in his biography of Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy writes in one passage that Alexandroy's dog, named Perito, died defending his master and fell mortally wounded in the master's lap.Thanks to Perito, a city named after him was built.According to the preserved sculptures, Perito looks like today's Sharplanina dog .
It is interesting that this dog probably wrote the ancient history, because without him Alexandroy would have lost his life. When Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy was attacked in battle by a large number of Persian soldiers of Dario -3, Perito jumped and bit the lip of one of the war elephants that was rushing towards Alexanderthus saving the life of his master who went on to conquer the then known world ''.
At this, the Makedonians were primarily between two fires. Parmenion sent to the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy ... a messenger ... that his army was in a desperate position and needed help. When this was announced to Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy, he stopped the chase and after turning with the cavalry of the Companions - Company Heroes, he turned to the right wing of the Persians. And he first attacked the fleeing enemy cavalry, and from them the Parthians and the Indians, as well as the Persians.... And here took place one of the fiercest cavalry battles of the whole battle ... The Persians turned and clashed head-on with the Makedonian armies led by Alexandroy... everyone was trying to find their way through everything that would stand in their way... Without forgiveness, they were cut and cut as fighters who do not fight for the victory of another, but for their own salvation. And here fell about 60 companions of Alexandtoy and was wounded by an arrow in the hand and Hepheastion himself, as well as Coen and Menida. But the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy held on.And those Persians who broke through the armies of Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy fled as headless. But Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy was now ready to face the enemy right wing. Here, too, the Thessalian cavalry, gloriously fighting, was not below in the battle of Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy, but because the barbarians from the right wing had already fled,when Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy clashed with them, Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy returned and began to persecute Dario again ... And the armies of Permionion pursued the opponents who fled before them ....
From the Makedonian army died over a hundred, and wounds and stress from chasing a thousand horses ... And from the barbarians said that three hundred thousand had died, but that the number of those who had been captured was greater than the dead, as well as the elephants and chariots that had not been destroyed in battle.... And the prophecy of the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy came true, that in the same month in which the moon will be eclipsed, there will be a battle of the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy and his victory...
Immediately after the battle, Dario go ... to Media, and with him the Bactrian cavalry escaped ... the Persians from the ruling family ... 2,000 foreign (Ionian-Athenian-Danai) mercenaries.
...And Darius was not deceived, because after leaving Arbela, the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy immediately went to Vabylon ... when the Vabylonians met him en masse, with the priests and chiefs, each of them offering gifts to the city and the fortress and wealth. When the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy arrived in Vabylon, he ordered the Vabylonians to rebuild the temples that Xerxes had demolished. ...
...From Vabylon to Susa the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy arrives in twenty days. And after he arrived in the city and took the fortune of about 50,000 talents of silver and everything else from the ruling property ... and all that Xerxes had brought from his campaign in Europe.
After rising from Susa and crossing the Passitigar River, it invaded the land of the Uxians.....
After this he went to Media and understood that Dario was there ...
The Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy, when he realized that he could not catch up with Dareio in a hasty pursuit, he stayed there for five days and rested the army..... when he heard that, the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy rushed even faster ... for Dario understood that he was really captured and that he was carried in a closed car and that power had been handed over to Bess ...
Those who captured Dario decided that if they understood that the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy was persecuting them, they would hand Dario over to Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy, in order to gain his favor.
If they understand that the Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy is back, they will gather as much army as possible so that they can jointly defend the country....
After hearing that, Vasileon Makedonon Alexandroy decided to continue at the highest speed ...”
Еден од шесте познати шлемови на Зопирион, генерал на Александар Македонски (загинал 331 г. пр. Хр.) Пронајден е во Оланешти, село во областа Стефан Вода ''Stafan cel Mare'', во Молдавија.
Македонскиот генерал Зопирион предводел 30 000 војници во походот против Скитите-Гетите на Македонскиот североисток.
Значи додека Александар Македонски војувал со Персија, вршел и воен поход против Скитите.
Воениот поход бил успешн, но на враќањето Македонската војска била десеткувана со постојани напади од многубројните Скити.
Така во доцната есен 331 година пред Христа, позади лимесот и реката Дунав во денешна Романија, Гетите го задаваат последниот удар врз македонската војска на генералот Зопирион. Тоа го сметале и како освета за походот на Александар Македонски во 335 г. пр. Христа кога тој им уништил голем дел од земјата. И овие архролошки наоди се од тој период, со сигурност.
Веќе во зимата кон крајот на истата година Зопирион и неговата војска исчезнуваат низ полињата на подунавјето.
Извор - Историја на Александар Македонски, книга 10 од Квинтус Куртиус Руфус.
Се споменува и кај Јустин.
Според археолошките наоди, Крим бил под Македонска власт, шлем од ковано железо од македонската фалангасо фрагменти од сребро (наМакедонската коњаницa) денес се наоѓа во музејот на Сан Петровград, значи современата наука, крие.
Битка кај Гавгамела
Битката кај Гавгамела бил вооружен судир во 331 п.н.е каде Александар Македонски - Македонија го поразил Дариј 3 - ти - Персија. Битката исто така
и се нарекува Битката кај Арабела.
- Македонци и сојузници под водство на Александар со 7.250 коњица и 40.000 пешадија. ( Според Аријан )
Деталот е подоцнежен, друга приказна
- Персијци под водство на Дариј веројатно со 20.000 главно тешка коњица, 230.000 пешадија ( вклучувајќи околи 10.000
јонски платеници, сродници на атино - данаите). Вистинскот број на Персијците не е утврден, но се знае дека биле многу побројни од
Персијците биле на бојното поле уште пред самата битка да започне. Дариј ја регрутирал најдобрата коњица од неговите сатрапии и од сојузничкото скитско племе. Дариј исто така ги спремил српните двоколки за кои имал приготвено чист терен пред неговите трупи. Исто така Дариј имал 50 индиски бојни слонови со поддршка на индиски двоколки, иако тие не играле никаква улога во битката. Пред битката, Дариј наредил да се искорне секаква вегетација на бојното поле за да може што подобро да оперира со српните двоколки.
Самиот Дариј стоел во средина заедно со најдобрата пешадија, по персискиот воен владетелски обичај. Тој бил опкружен, десно, од каријска коњица,
јонски платеници и персиска коњичка гарда. Меѓу центарот и средината ја поставил неговата пешадиска гарда ( Јаболконосачи или Бесмртници ), индиската коњица и неговите мардиски стрелци.
На двете крила била коњицата. Бес го командувал левото крило со бактријанците, дахајската коњица, арахрозијската коњица, персиската коњица, сузиската коњица, кадузијската коњица и скитите. Двоколките биле сместени напред заедно со мала група бактријци.
Мазеј го командувал десното крило со сиријската, медијската, месопотамиската, партијанската, сакијанската, тапуријанската, xирканијанската, албанската, сакезијската, кападокијанската и ерменската коњица. Кападокијците и Ерменците биле сместени во преден план и го воделе нападот. Албанската и сакезијската коњица биле пратени да го обиколат македонското лево крило.
Македонците биле поделени на два дела, со десното крило под директна команда на Александар Македонски, а левото на Парменион. Александар Македонски се борел со своите коњички придружници. Со нив биле пајонците и лесната коњица на Александар Македонски. Платеничката коњица биле исто така поделена на две групи, со ветераните на десното крило, а остатокот од нив пред агријанците и македонските стрелци кои се наоѓале непосредно покрај фалангата. Парменион се наоѓал лево со тесалците,
платеници и тракиските коњички единици. Тие биле наменети да го задржуваат непријателот додека Александар Македонски го задава решавачкиот удар десно.
Македонската фаланга - cмoтpa
Меѓу десната страна и центарот биле критски платеници. Зад нив била група од тесалски коњаници под команда на Филип како и
платеници. Десно од нив бил друг дел од сојузничката коњица. Таму била и фалангата која била позиционирана во двојна линија. Заради тоа што биле бројно надминати 5:1 во коњица, персиската линија била за 1.5 км подолга од македонската, изгледало неизбежно дека Македонците ќе бидат заобиколени од Персијците.
Вториот ред фаланга имал за задача да се справи со оваа ситуација ако тоа се случи. Оваа втора линија се состоела главно од платеници.
Македонската фаланга - cмoтpa
Македонската фаланга - cмoтpa
За време на битката Александар Македонски употребил толку уникатна стратегија која само неколкумина во светската историја можеле да ја повторат. Неговиот план бил да повлече што повеќе персиска коњица на крилата. Овој план имал за цел да направи отвор во непријателската линија каде подоцна би се задал решавачки удар кај Дариј во центарот. За ова бил потребен речиси совршен тајминг и маневрирање како и условот дека Дариј требал да изделува прв.
Македонците нападнале со крилата свиткани наназад под агол од 45° за да ја намамат периската коњица да нападне. Истовремено полека крилата се придвижувале кон десно. Александар Македонски го натeрал Дариј да нападне ( и набрзо неговата војска се поместила од подготвениот терен ), иако Дариј не сакал да нападне прв од кога видел што се случило во ваква слична ситуација кај Ис. На крајот Дариј бил принудeн да нападне.
Сега Дариј наредил напад на двоколките. Некои од нив биле пресретнати од Агријанците. Меѓутоа македонската војска имала извежбана тактика за соочување со овие смртоносни направи. Првите линии се поттргнале, отворајќи процеп. Коњите одбииле да се втрчаат во копјата на првите редови и се фатиле во т.н. „ стапица за глувци “, каде што биле запрени со копјата од задните редови.
Потоа возачите биле лесно убиени. Двоколките биле бескорисни.
Како што Персијците оделе се понапред и понапред во македонските крила, Александар Македонски полека ја исфилтрирал неговата гарда позади. Персијците го направиле истото, додека не се отворила празнина помеѓу левата страна на Бес и центарот на Дариј кога Александар Македонски ги пратил своите последни коњички резерви против нив. Александар Македонски ги отповикал своите придружници и се подготвил за решавачкиот напад против Персијците. Под негово водство, тој ги групирал своите единици во форма на гигантски клин, со самиот Александар Македонски на врвот од него. Позади него била бригада од неговата гарда и батаљони од фалангата кои успеал да ги извлече од битка. Овие биле лесни, проследни трупи.
Овој голем клин се судрил директно со ослабениот персиски центар, масакрирајќи ја дворската гарда на Дариј и
јонскате платеници. Бес од левата страна сега бил отсечен од Дариј и плашејки се дека и тој би бил нападнат од овој клин почнал да се повлекува. Самиот Дариј бил во опасност да биде отсечен и тука има неколку различни верзии на она што потоа се случило. Според речиси сите верзии, Дариј почнал да бега и остатокот од неговата војска исто така. Меѓутоа единствениот зачуван документ од тоа време вели дека персиската слабо обучена вазалска војска, сама почнала да бега.
Интересно е тоа што дел од персиските вазали ја пробиле Македонската линија на Парменион, наместо да го нападнат од зад грб, тие отишле да го пљаачкаат македонсиот камп, мајката на Дариј одбила да дојде со нив. Набрагу Александар Македонски му дошол на помош на Парменион и победата била целосна.
По битката, Парменион го обиколил персискиот багажен караван, додека Александар Македонски и неговите телохранители го гонеле Дариј со надеж дека ќе го фатат. Како и кај Ис, така и во оваа битка пленот од грабежот бил огромен. Биле фатени 4.000 таленти, како и личната двоколка и лак на Дариј. Исто така биле фатени и бојните слонови.
Дариј успеал да избега од битката со мала група на војници. Бактријската коњица и Бес, успеале да го стигнат. Некои преживеани од дворската гарда и 2.000
јонски платеници исто така им се придружиле.
Сега Персиската иммерија била поделена на две половини – Источна и Западна.
КАКО НА НЕБОТО ИМА ЕДНО СОНЦЕ, ТАКА И НА ЗЕМЈАТА ЌЕ ИМА ЕДЕН ГОСПОДАР, КАКО НА НЕБОТО, ТАКА И НА ЗЕМЈАТA
се прогласил за Големиот ГОСПОДАР (титулата на Дариј ), '' ВACИЛEOH '' - ГОСПОДАРHA ГОСПОДАРИTE, ВACИЛEOH АЛЕКСАНДРOJ MAKEДOHOH. ( ВAC - ИЛE - OH ).
'' ЈАС СВЕТОТ ГО ОСВОЈУВАМ ЗА МАКЕДОНЦИТЕ '' - ВACИЛEOH АЛЕКСАНДРOJ MAKEДOHOH,
рекол, а ''историчаритѐ'', кријат или не знаат.
При неговот бегство, Дариј одржал говор пред остатокот од неговата војска. Тој планирал да оди источно и да регрутира нова војска за напад врз Александар Македонски додека тој одел накај Вавилон. Истовремено Дариј пратил писма до неговите источни сатрапии во кои тој побарал од нив да му останат верни.
Повторно Дариј бил принуден да побегне од бојното поле, но овојпат Александар Македонски го следел до Арбела, откаде овој пребегнал во Екбатана
По оваа битка Александар Македонски бил крунисан за владетел на
Азија во Арабела ПО МИЛОСТ БОЖЈА ,.. што било по азиски ( персиски ) обичај.
Потоа Александар Македонски тргнал кон Вавилон.
Mакедонската фаланга вo Вавилон
Од Вавилон, Александар Македонски се упатил во Суса, еден од главните градови на Персија, и го освоил неговото легендарно богатство. Испраќајќи ја главнината од својата војска кон главниот град на Персија Персеполис, Александар Македонски ги нападнал и освоил Портите на Персија (денес планината Загрос).
'' Планот на Александар Македонски беше да го колонизира крајбрежјето на Персискиот залив и островите; тој всушност проценуваше дека ова подрачје би можело да биде исто толку богато како и Феникија. Неговите поморски подготовки всушност беа усмерени против Арапите, под изговор дека тие биле единствените од сите народи кои не му испратиле пратеници.
Всушност според мое мислење, тоа беше затоа што тој се уште беше гладен за нови освојувања.
Кога се спушташе кон Bабилон, го пресретнаа пратеници од Либијците, кои што му честитаа што станал владетел на Азија и му дадоа круна, а исто така од слични причини му пристигнаа и пратеници од Pим, од Бретијците, Левканите и Тиренците. Се вели и дека Кархедонците ( Картагинците ) испратиле пратеници, а пристигнале и други од Ајтиопија и од европските Скити, Келти и Иберци, за да склучат договори за пријателство.
На Македонците и Хелените ( xелените како религија а не како нација, ова наликува на некој ''вметнат вируc'', нема логика, Александар МАКЕДОНОН, е Македонец, господар на светот, кој работел напорно за таа заслуга, со Македонците, каква е оваа глупост, ја спомнувам бидејќи ако ја читате книгата ќе ја сретнете и да знаете да ја препознаете, оваа лага ''хеленѝ''), тогаш навистина за прв пат се сретнаа со нивните имиња и со нивната спрема. Некои од нив, велат, го замолиле Александар да им покаже што мисли за разликите меѓу нив. А Александар, претежно и самиот сфати, а така мислеше и неговата придружба, дека е господар на сета земја и на сето море.
Историчарите Аристид и Асклепијад, што се вбројуваат меѓу оние што ги опишале делата на Александар Македонски, додаваат дека на Александар Македонски му дошле и пратеници од Рим. И дека, прорекол дека ќе бидат моќни во иднина''.
Извор: Аријан, „Александровата Анабаса”, книга 6, 15 , стр. 220-221
ПОРТИТЕ НА ПЕРСИЈА
Е еднен премин тесна клисура за патот кон Персеполитион. Tука Војската на Александар Македонски била нападната од Персијците под водство на генералот Ариeл Барзанес на врвовите на клисурата
кај местото Нарос длабоко во преминот, фрлале со камења врз македонските војници по што тие биле принудени моментално да се повлечат за да се реорганизираат.
- Ова е прв пат да македонската фаланга од водство на Александар Македонски да се повлекува во битка.
Персијците биле многу горди за овој потфат...
Битката уште е во сеќавање на локалната популација во тој регион. Александар Македонски HE Е сакан од Персијците,.. што е и нормално,.. Мајките таму и ден денешен ги плашат децата ако не слушале '' ЌЕ ДОЈДЕЛ AЛЕКСАНДАР ДА ГИ ЗЕМЕ ''
Aлександар Македонски бил многу лут зошто не ја забележал cтапицата... Од локалните затвореници изнудил информации за друг премин со име Ариел, така што на тој начин можел да ги заобиколи перcијците и од зад грб да ги нападне.
Во 9 навечер наредил на армијата да го помине тој премин под нај голема тајност и тишина. Kога стигнале на врвот на 7 - 8 000 метри имало една чистина каде се одмориле. И испланирале околу полноќ: 3 пешадиски бригади: АМИНТА, ФИЛОТА И КOЕН,
под команда на Кратер требало да се вратат
на преодот каде биле персијците од каде нападнале првиот пат и да нападнат од таму. Александар Македонски со коњаницата, една пешадиска бригада и стрелци од позади персијците требало да ги нападнат биле околу 5 - 6000.
3000 под команда на генерал Птоломеј останале како резерва. Тоа биле Cребрените Kопја телохранителите на Александар Македонски.
Така организирани почале да се приближуваат кон персијците,.. било многу темно, а и студено имало и снег,.. некои oд младите војници дури и плачелe нo билe храбрени од постарите.
Персијанците биле опколени и биле победени, а на персискиот соработувач Aлександар Македонски му дал 40 таленти од злато.
Потоа побрзал кон Персеполитион пред неговата војска, таму заробиле 4000 тони злато. За време на нивниот претстој во градот, '' избил'' пожар во палатата на Ксеркс и се ''проширил'' низ остатокот од градот. Најверојатно пожарот бил намерен, за освета, но подоцна Александар Македонски се покајал.
По освојувањето на Персеполитион, Александар Македонски ја продолжил потерата по Дариj. До тогаш, Персискиот
владетел веќе бил заробен од Бес, неговиот Бактријски сатрап и сонародник. Додека Александар Македонски наближувал, Бес наредил да го убијат Дариј, а потоа се прогласил за негов наследник под името Артаксеркс 5 - ти и се повлекол во централна Азија од каде организирал герилски напади против Александар Македонски.
Персискиот владетел Дариј 3-ти Комодан е убиен од страна на своите ближни, заверниците Бес (сатрапот од Бактрија), Барзаент (сатрапот од Архозија и Дрангијана) и началникот на персијската коњаница Набарзан. Подмолното убиство се случило во летото 330 п.н.е. источно од Касписката врата. Касписката или Персијската врата го нарекле тесниот планински премин, кој се наоѓал на планината Алборз (Елбрус) во близина на јужното крајбражје на Каспиското море.
Hа местото: ГЕРД АБ - ''КАДЕ ИМА ВОДА ЗА ПИЕЊЕ''. Дариј бил смртно ранет од Бес,.. бил најден од македонските извидници завиткан во една покривка во крв. Дариј оставил порака во која го замолил Александар Македонски да се грижи со неговата фамилија со чест.
Александар Македонски на Дариј му приредува раскошен закоп како што доликува на еден владетел.
Буната во Атина и РАСПУШТАЊЕ на
војниците од Коринтската Лига
од Македонска Фаланга
ВО МОМЕНТ КОГА ОДЕЛО СЕ ВО РЕД Александар Македонски добил вести од Македонија. Aтино-данаите повторно се побуниле подржани од Спартанците,.. Александар веднаш му пратил пари на Антипатар кој во тоа време бил во Тракија кој со парите собрал војска и ги поразил здружените aтино-данаи и спартанци. При тоа загубил 4000 македонски воjници додека го убил спартанскиот aнax-владетел Агис - 3 - ти и 5000
aтино-данаи и спартански
војници, со тоа ги ставил пак под '' контрола''.
На веста за победата на Антипатар, Aлександар Македонски дал наредба да се распуштат
војниците од Коринтската Лига
во служба кај него, но им дозволил на доброволците да останат како платеници.
Неговата понатамошна тригодишна воена кампања, прво против Бес, а потоа и против Спитамен, сатрап од Согдијана, го одвела Александар Македонски низ повеќе делови на денешен Авганистан и Таџикистан. Притоа, формирал повеќе градови со името Александрија, од кои некои постојат и денес, на пример Кандахар во Авганистан и Хуџанат во Таџикистан. Во тие походи, неговите противници биле поразени, Бес во 329., а Спитамен во 328 г.п.н.е.
Василеон (господар на господарите) Александар Македонски, гонејќи ги убијците на Дариј, сега негови ''новѝ'' противници, сé ''занел'' во освојувањата и стигнал до крајниот Север и Исток... ПОВЕЌЕ
ОСВЕТА КОН ПОТОМЦИТЕ НА ПРЕДАВНИЦИТЕ
Гонејќи ги неговите непријатели во Узбекистан и на патот кон Самаркан се случило чуднa работа.... некаде во тие ридови во едно градче Бранкадл, Александар Македонски со фалангата наишoл на мал град со луѓе cо европска физиономија, а зборувале
јонски. Hивните предци живееле на
источната приморска зона на Егејското море
- Јонија. Потомците на овие луѓе биле свештеници на храмот од Дидеми, a нивните предци 150 години пред биле соработници со персијанците кога Македонија била под Персиска окупација.
Следното утро Александар Македонски дошол со дел од македонската фалангa во градчето преправајќи се дека бил пријателски настроен,.. наскоро започнал колеж ,.. се додека не бил убиен и последниот од нив,
македонците срамниле и запалиле СЕ' ДУРИ И ГРОБОВИТЕ НА МРТВИТЕ.
УШТЕ ЕДЕН ДОКАЗ ДЕКА
војна на Персија всушност БИЛА ОСВЕТА НА МАКЕДОНЦИТЕ ВРЗ
ПЕРСИСКАТА ОКУПАЦИЈА ВРЗ МАКЕДОНИЈА ПРЕД 150 ГОДИНИ
од страна на ПЕРСИЈЦИТЕ.
ПРВИОТ СИН НА АЛЕКСАНДАР МАКЕДОНСКИ
327 ce раѓа ПРВИОТ СИН НА АЛЕКСАНДАР МАКЕДОНСКИ,
Херакле од неговата кункубина Барсина.
Александар Македонски го продолжува освојувањето,.. во местото Kалаш (денес позната како земја на неверниците) и Хунза ги остава старите, болните и ранетите војници и мал дел од војската заедно со благајник.
ОСВОЈУВАЊЕТО НА СЕВЕРНА ИНДИЈА
Александар Македонски ги зацврстува своите нови позиции во Централна Азија. Во 326 г.п.н.е. Александар Македонски конечно е подготвен да се посвети на освојувањето на Индија. Александар Македонски ги повикува сите водачи на племињата од Гандара, територија на север од денешен Пакистан, да му се покорат и да тргнат со него. Амби, владетелот на Таџила, чиja држава се простиралa од Индус до Џелум, така и направилa. Но водачите на некои кланови, како например Асапсиос и Асакеноис, познати во Индиските текстови како Ашвајани и Ашвакајани (имињата асоцираат на природата на нивните заедници, во Санскритскиот јазик Ашва значи коњ), одбиле да се покорат.
Александар Македонски лично ја преземал командата над штитоносците, пешадијата, стрелците, Агријанците и коњаниците и со нив тргнал во напад на кланот Аспасиос во долините Алишанг и Гуреа, како и на кланот Асакеноис во долините Сват и Бунер. Според современите историчари, било доста тешко за Александар Македонски да ги покори овие племиња, меѓу кои племињата Масага и Аорну дале силен отпор. Посебно драматични биле борбите со кланот Аспасиос, во кои Александар Македонски бил ранет во рамото со копје, но сепак кланот ја загубил битката. 40.000 воини биле заробени.
Асакеноисите му се спротивставиле на Александар Македонски со армија од 30.000 борбени кочии, 38.000 пешадија и 30 слонови. Тие се бореле храбро и пружиле силен отпор во многу утврдени места како што биле градовите Ора, Базира и Масага. За да се скрши жестокиот отпор кај утврдувањето Масага биле потребни неколку дена жестока и крвава битка во која Александар Македонски бил сериозно ранет во потколеницата.
Кога поглаварот на Масага загинал во битката, командата над неговата војска ја преземала неговата мајка Клеофис, која исто така била цврсто решена да ја брани својата татковина до последниот здив. Примерот со Клеофис кажува дека во битката исто така била вклучена и женската популација на утврдувањето. Александар Македонски за да ја совлада Масага морал постојано да врши дотур на свежа војска со цел да го одржи моралот на својата војска. Според Куртис, Александар Македонски не само што ја уништил војската и останатите жители на Масага тој исто така го разрушил до темел, го пеплосал градот. На сличен начин својот бес подоцна Александар Македонски го искажал и на Ора, следното упориште на Асакеносите.
При крајот на битките кои ги водел Александар Македонски во Масага и Ора, голем број на Акакеносите се префрлиле во утврдувањето високо во планините наречено Аорнос. Александар Македонски постојано бил зад петици на овие трупи. Само после четири дневна крвава битка Александар Македонски го завземал и ова утврдување кое се сметало за неосвоиво. Пустошења како во Масага се повториле и во Аорнос.
Hа карпите на местото '' ХАС РАТИ СУЛТАН '' високо околу 4500 метри а последните 1000 метри било многу стрмно и непристапно,.. Таму непријателите мислеле дека биле безбедни така што му праќаат едена порака на Александар велејќи:
''САМО АКО МОЖЕШ ДА ЛЕТАШ ЌЕ МОЖЕШ ДА ГО ЗАЗЕМЕШ МЕСТОТО '' .
Ho 300 доброволци успеале да се искачат на тоа место и од зад грб да ги нападнат... Така што после Александар Македонски му рекол на локалниот водач:
''ГЛЕДАШ ДЕКА ЈАС ИМАМ КРИЉА ДА ЛЕТАМ ПА ВЕ ОСВОИВ''
на три дела.
На чело на
можел да се
одржи. За да
него го таа
Александар Македонски против Асакеносите:
''Иако им ветил на опколените Асакеноси дека ќе им ги поштеди животите ако се предадат, тој ги погубил сите војници кои биле заробени. Нивните упоришта во Ора и Аорнус исто така биле разрушени.''
Сисикотос, кој му помогнал на Александар Македонски во овие битки, подоцна бил назначен за владетел на Аорнус.
БРАКОТ СО РОКСАНА
329 година п.н.е.
ЈА ЗЕМА ЗА ЖЕНА РОКСАНА
Бактриската принцеза Роксана - Рошанак на Бактриски,.. таа била ќерка на локалниот водач, Александар Македонски се вљубил во неа и ја земал за жена.
Дел од македонските генерали биле протв тоа,,.. Па затоа Александар Македонски го праќа Парменио во Вавилон да се грижи за позадината.
Предаството на Филота
Но највеќе македонските генерали биле незадоволни кога Aлександар Македонски регрутирал Персјанци во македонската фаланга.
Филита синот на Парменио дури пробал и да го отруе,.. бил откриен и суден заедно со неговите соработници.
Дел од судењето е забележано:
- Александар Македонски најпрво го погледна Филота и рече:
''Македонците решија да те судат. Те прашувам, сакаш ли да зборуваш со нив на мајчиниот јазик (македонскиот)?''
''Освен Македонците, тука има многу други сведоци, кои ми се чини полесно ќе ги разберат моите зборови, ако се послужам со ( данајски-axajcки ) истиот јазик, на кој ти штотуку проговори, кое ти го направи, мислам, само затоа, за да можат, говорот, повеќе луѓе да ти го разберат.''
Потоа, Александар Македонски рече:
''Гледате ли, Филота си го мрази татковиот ( македонски ) јазик, зашто тој самиот се откажува да се изразува на него. Но тој може да говори како сака, вие, да знаете дека тој се оддалечил како од нашите (македонски) обичаи, така и од нашиот јазик.''
( Курциус Руфус, 6, c.36 ).
За време на судењето, логорот на Македонците бил затворен и недозволувале никој да излезе. Филота бил осуден на смрт заедно со татко му Парменио,.. иако отсутен, кој во тогашно време се сметало кај Mакедонците како одговорен за постапките на својот син,.. Парменио бил убиен од Kлито, кој бил потоа пратен во Вавилон да ја изврши таа задача.
Откако го совладал Аорнус, Александар Македонски ја преминал реката Инд и влетал во епската битка против Пор, владател на територијата Пенџаб во битката кај Хидасп во 326 г.п.н.е.
По конечниот пораз на Ахеменидската држава под водство на Бес и Спитамен во 328 п.н.е, Александар Македонски почнал со походи на разните индиски владетели во 326 п.н.е. Според некои извори Александар Македонски имал 120.000 војска, додека според други војската не броела повеќе од 35.000 војници, од кои коњицата била една третина.
Главниот багажен караван поминал преку Киберскиот премин, но помала група војници под команда на Александар Македонски преминале преку север, освојувајќи ја тврдината кај Орно (денешен Пир-Сар, Пакистан) по пат. Во раната пролет следната година, ги соединил своите сили и се сојузил со Таксил (познат и како Амби), кој бил владетел на Таксила, против неговиот сосед, владетелот на Хидасп.
Битката кај Хидасп
Битката кај реката Хидасп се одиграла 326 п.н.е помеѓу војската на Александар Македонски и војската на индискиот владетел Пор (санскрит: Пурурава) крај реката Хидасп (денешна река Џелум) во регионот Пенџаб. Државата на Пор се протегалa во делот од стара Индија кој денес припаѓа на Пакистан. Оваа битка бил последниот покрупен судир на Александар Македонски. Иако во битката македонската војска победила, поради истоштеност одбила да оди подлабоко во Индија и покрај желбата на нивниот војсководец, Александар Македонски.
- Македонци, персиски и индиски сојузници под воство на Александар Македонски со околу 4.000 коњица и 50.000 пешадија и 2.700 војска под водство на Кратер кои играле диверзиона улога.
- Пор со 200 бојни слонови, 6.000 коњица и 30.000 пешадија.
Битката се одвивала на источниот брег на реката Хидасп, (денешен Џелум која е притока на реката Инд) близу денешните места Лила и Бора во Пакистан.
Пор влaдeтeлот на Хидасп се сместил на левата страна од реката за да ги спречи преминувањата на истата. Реката Хидасп е доволно длабока и брза за да го однесе секој што сака да ја премине. Затоа Александар Македонски почекал неколку дена, со многу маршеви и контрамаршеви како и информациска војна (со тоа што им „дал на знаење“ на мештаните дека смета дека реката е премногу длабока за преминување, факт кој го дознал од Пор). Една ноќ, кога осетил благосостојба во кампот на Пор, Александар Македонски собрал мала војска и ја преминал реката 17 км низводно. Бидејќи ја гледал главната војска со Кратер сe уште пред него, Пор пратил само малку војска да се соочи со нападот. Меѓутоа тој погрешно проценил и војската била убиена заедно со неговиот син.
Кога битката подоцна почнала, Македонската коњица била сместено на десното крило, но Александар Македонски пратил група коњаници да ги заобиколи Индијците и да ги нападне одзади. Индијците имале коњица на двете крила, бојни слонови напред и пешадија позади слоновите.
Овие бојни слонови ја правеле ситуацијата многу тешка за Александар Македонски. Речиси сите негови победи се должеле на неговата способност да го раздвои непријателот и да јуриша со неговите коњички придружници низ отворот. Меѓутоа слоновите ги уплашувале македонските коњи. Така Александар Македонски морал да ја промени неговата стратегија.
Александар Македонски ја започнал битката со вообичаениот јуриш на десното крило (лево на индијците) со предвидливи резултати, индиското лево крило ослабело и Пор ја зајакнал таа страна со коњица од десното крило. Ова ги оставило индиските коњаници без никој да ги брани од опколниот напад одзади. Александар Македонски го сакал токму ова. Тој ја уништил индиската коњица без да ги доближува неговите коњи до слоновите. Доколку индиската коњица не би била уништена, таа сигурно би претставувала закана за фалангата подоцна во битката и македонската коњаница не би можела да ја подржува пешадијата во борбата против индиската коњица заради близината на слоновите.
Mакедонската фаланга - cмoтpa
Во меѓувреме, македонската фаланга и персиската пешадија трнале напред за да го пречекаат јуришот на слоновите, кој бил запрен, иако со тешки последици за пешадијата. Махутите на слоновите биле убиени, а некои биле повредени, така што војската на Александар Македонски успеала да ја обиколи индиската војска. По загубата на огромен број животи, Пор, кој бил ранет во борбата, се предал.
Пор бил еден од многуте Индијци кои го импресионирале Александар Македонски. Погоден од најмалку шест стрели во битката, но сe уште на нозе, тој бил запрашан од Александар:
'' Како сакате да се однесува ссо вас?.''
„какo владетел“, така отогаш и се однесувле македонците со Пор.
Пор бил висок речиси 210 см..
Тешко е да се измерат жртвите, но се знае дека Индијците ја изгубиле целата своја коњица, голем дел од пешадијата и преку 100 бојни слонови. Македонците фатиле 80 слона, но изгубиле многу пешадија во битката. Коњицата имала многу помалку жртви. Историчарот Питер Грин вели дека Александар Македонски изгубил дури 4.000 војници, главно фаланга. Тие биле оние кои морале да се соочат со слоновите бидејќи коњите не сакале ни да се доближат.
Храброста и војните вештини на Пор го импресионирале Александар Македонски. И покрај тоа што Пор бил поразен, Александар Македонски му го поштедил животот и го поставил за повторен владетел на Хидасп во негово име. Ова била најдалеката точка кај што Александар Македонски стигнал заради одбивањето на неговата војска да оди напред не само заради тоа што била истоштена, туку и заради тоа што за прв пат го увидела вистинскиот начин на употреба на слонови во битка. Дариј пред тоа употребувал слонови во битка, но тие не играле значајна улога. Тука фалангата за прв пат се соочила со јуриш на слонови и чудо е што воопшто успеала да ги одбие заради огромниот психолошки ефект што тие го имале врз војниците.
Иако Александар Македонски успеал да ја освои само северозападна Индија, неговиот поход извршил големо влијание. Со тоа што ги победил опасните локални властелини во Хиндукуш и соседните региони, тој го подготвил теренот за идната Маурска држава, втората држава која успеала да ја освои цела Индија.
Kако резултат на оваа битка Александар Македонски основал два града, Никеја (Победа) на местото на денешен Џалапур и Букефалија (веројатно) на местото на денешна Бера, Пакистан. Букефал бил коњот на Александар Македонски, кој загинал или во битката, или подоцна од старост и истоштеност.
Источно од државатa на Пор, близу до реката Ганг, се наоѓалa моќнaтa Магада под владение на династијата Нанда. Стравувајќи од судир со уште една моќна Индиска војска, изморена од повеќегодишните воени походи, војската на Александар Македонски запира кај реката Биас одбивајќи да маршира понатаму кон исток. Така оваа река ја означува и границата до каде војската на Александар продрела на исток.
После битката со Пор, моралот на војската на Александар Македонски опаднал за понатамошни походи. А покрај се, тие требало да се соочат со далеку помоќен непријател. Војската на Александар Македонски имала на располагање околу 20 илјадна пешадија и околу две илјади коњаници. Војската отворено се спротиставила на инсистирањето на Александар да ја преминат и реката Ганг, која била широка, како што тие слушнале, 6.5 километри ( 32 фурлонга ), со длабочина од 183 метри (100 фатоми). А пак од другата страна на реката ги чекала силна армија од добро вооружени и воинствени пешадијци, коњаници и слонови.
Некои дури извори велат дека владетелите на Гандерит и Праеши ги чекале со армија од 8 илјади коњаници, двесте илјади пешадиј